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With the original forum or topic post where most of the creatures my team and I have described and suggested over the years having been archived and any form of activity being disabled on the previous forum, I have created a continuation on the animals we have suggested in the past year to present. This forum is where I post my team and I's suggestions for new creatures for Ark Survival Evolved's new maps and for Ark 2. Other players or members can post their own suggestions and ideas on this forum as well, and comment on our ideas. I am looking forward to your comments, suggestions and topics for any future Ark maps, Ark 2 or any potential creature votes. In the meantime, my team and I have been working on a Toxodont concept. Link to the Original Ark 2 New Creature Suggestions: Link to the Original Posts for Each Creature Suggestion: Onyc TLC: Necromantis: Odobenocetops: Synthetoceras: Aenigmacaris: Diictodon: Genyodectes: Chauliodus: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TLC Update Suggestion for the Onyc/Onychonycteris When we look at the various species of mammals in Ark, one of the very first that becomes underlooked and is kind of shamed half the time by the community, is the Onyc or Onychonycteris. This species of Eocene bat is most of the time considered in quotes “useless” as there really isn’t many needs for it after the addition of the Desmodus. Alongside this, the species in Ark is not similar at all to the species it is based off of, in appearance, attributes and abilities. Rather than some depicted swarming and aggressive cave dweller, the Onyc should be a forest and swamp dweller, gliding and fluttering through the foliage, a solitary and/or cooperative species very similar in behaviour to Old World Bats and/or Fruit Bats, not Vampire Bats and modern or present day New World Bats. This is why my team and I have suggested a TLC update for this creature and what it should have for abilities and a complete overhaul of every characteristic. For my next creature suggestion, my team and I have found a small extinct and prehistoric species of Bat that can follow the swarming, non-rideable, viral caring and completely aggressive mentality that Wildcard tried to go with for the Onyc, but to make it very different from the Desmodus and my next species. The Onyc will no longer be the species we see in the caves of the Arks, but rather a completely changed flying mammal. (Updated Version of Dossier for TLC) Common Name: Onyc New Suggested Name for Species: Onychonycteris tapraomou (“Clawed Bat of the Lush Lands”) Old Name for Species: Onychonycteris specuncola (“Cave Crawler”) Time: Eocene Period Diet: Insectivorous (Old Dossier - Omnivorous) Temperament: Neutral (Aggressive if Attacked) Tameable: Yes Rideable: Yes (Old Dossier - No) Breedable: Yes Torpidity Immune: No Taming Method: Passive Preferred Kibble: Simple Kibble Preferred Food: Chitin Equipment: “Onyc" Saddle (Level 38) Rider Weaponry: Yes Humans Can Carry: No Anatomy When looking at the Onyc’s anatomy and characteristics. The first detail that should be acknowledged when making a TLC for the Onyc, is the controversial topic that is echolocation. Unlike other bats. The monospecific genera that is Onychonycteris is considered and speculated with the concept that the genus didn’t evolve the adaptation to use echolocation. Studies have found that bats or the Order Chiroptera learned flight before echolocation. This means that rather than making the species found on the Ark to have this ability, my team and I’s concept for this creature would be to separate it away from Desmodus draculae. The Onyc should follow the principle of not having echolocation. This means that it could act more similar to Old World Bats such as Flying Foxes and/or Fruit Bats, rather than New World Bats such as the traditional Vampire Bats found in South America. With the evidence, though. Both studies counteract each other, and some say that both forms of evidence are from a “pancake fossil” that makes it uncertain what the animal’s actual bone structure and configuration was actually like. The only information that we can use towards speculation is the simple cochlea of Onychonycteris finneyi that specifies or slightly confirms that the Onyc was incapable of echolocation. This is due to the cochlea or the “part of the inner ear involved in hearing” wouldn’t be capable of allowing the high frequency sound pulses or waves in the form of ultrasounds that pass through the nose or mouth. The bat then uses its ears to listen for an echo or for the waves to bounce off of an object or another organism. An ability that has been found incapable in the Onyc with the design of its cochlea. The next detail would be in its paleobiology and the environment it once called home. Onychonycteris finneyi is from the Green River Formation in modern day Wyoming, Utah and Colorado, USA where it lived alongside other bats such as Icaronycteris index, the boa Boavus (Boavus idelmani), Meniscotherium, the primate Notharctus, the crocodilian Borealosuchus and stingrays such as Asterotrygon. This indicates that while these bats lived in a temperate and semi-tropical climate that was warm enough to support crocodile lizards, stingrays, catfish, crocodilians and palm trees, the formation housed various unique species that lived in this environment. Indicating that while the Onyc’s on the Ark live in the caves of various maps such as the Island for example. The Onyc’s should live in and around swamps, semi-tropical, temperate and warmer biomes in and around mountain ranges (due to the intermountain lakes and basins that make up the formation along the Uinta Mountains). While this goes against its scientific name in Ark, this is a secondary detail that could be used towards making the Onyc more distinct and unique when compared to other flying mammals and to other species that belong to the Order Chiroptera in Ark Survival Evolved and possibly in Ark 2. When it comes to flight, the Onyc should have a different flight behaviour due to the species long hind limbs and its much shorter wings that resulted in the Onyc lacking the aerodynamic equivalents among known bats, resulting in the aerofoil contributing to an alternating fluttering and gliding flight style, unlike the flying style present in the Ark species. This is considered the “evolutionary intermediate” between powered flight and gliding. Also the Onyc should bring a new form of climbing and/or gripping to surfaces, walls and trees in its surroundings due to its peculiar five claws on its fingers rather than the standard two or three in known species. The next detail after that, should be in appearance. While the species found on the Ark is modified and different from the reference material, O. specuncola or O tapraomou (my teams suggested name for the species) should have an appearance similar, but not exactly like that of its relative and possible ancestor. First of all, the Onyc currently in Ark is lacking more wing membranes around its tail and back hind legs, and has a face and body that are very similar to that of the sub family Desmodontinae or Vampire Bats. Instead, flying foxes or fruit bats and even flying squirrels can be used as the model for this species of flying mammal as the Onyc isn't exactly a “true” bat, but rather the between of known bats and other flying mammals. Resulting in many speculative representations presenting a depiction similar to a cross between these examples, for example: Onychonycteris | Dinopedia | Fandom dinopedia.fandom.com and/or Ancient 'Clawed Bat' Reveals Clues to …| westerndigs.org Rather the current model and design has a nasal cavity and ears similar to leaf nosed bats, large fangs that could be used for impaling and slicing into prey, only four fingers (one of the fingers is possibly connected between both fingers) on each pair of wings (which goes against the actual name behind Onychonycteris which means “clawed bat” referring to its five clawed fingers) and a non-Eocene bat design, the Onyc could use an update to its design. Now my team and I are trying not to criticise Wildcard and their designs for Ark Survival Evolved, as many animals such as the Triceratops, Purlovia and Ankylosaurus all have similar characteristics and details similar to the species they are based off of. The Onyc in Ark doesn’t have any major characteristics similar to Onychonycteris finneyi, which is why my team and I are suggesting these ideas towards a TLC. Onyc Encountering Tips | ARK: Survival … dododex.com Also the Onyc is speculated based on teeth remains and fossils that it was actually an insectivore, as the speculated and larger species in Ark. Is specified to feed on mosses and fungi in their surroundings alongside live prey which they swarm. However, the new species for this TLC would be insectivorous and be able to feed on different arthropods and invertebrates as an adaptation towards its environment and also towards adapting to different climates and biomes. Alongside this, the Onyc shouldn’t be able to carry Mega Rabies, as these bats aren’t hematophagous and/or don’t feed on blood like the vampire bats that the current Onyc in Ark is based on. New Abilities - Just like the Desmodus draculae, the Onyc can hang upside down as evidence shows that the feet of early Eocene bats allowed them to perform this hanging behaviour. - The Onyc has an applied buff when attacking insects known as “Insectivorous Instinct” where the Onyc has a 25% increase in melee damage, a 25% decrease on incoming melee damage and the preventing of certain stuns such as the Lymantria’s spore defence mechanism and the Mantis leap attack and a 50% collection rate towards chitin, leech blood, organic polymer (from arthropods (insects) such as the Mantis) and black pearls. - The Onyc is a natural bug repellent and any arthropods (arachnids, insects, trilobites and crustaceans) become deterred from these bats. - The Onyc has a buff known as “Constricting Rage “ which is an increased buff of 75% attack damage towards snakes and serpents (primarily Titanoboa) in its natural environment (swamps, temperate forests and semi-tropical riverways). This is due to the possibility that the Boavus boa’s found in the Green River Formation that the Onyc is from, probably preyed and fed upon early Eocene bats such as the Onyc. - The Onyc can be ridden and with it having a saddle with a built in chemistry table and has a slot that allows players to descend from the saddle via a grappling hook. The Onyc has a new landing position, can hold onto various types of textures in different environments, can have three players on its saddle and crawling features unlike other tames that allows the player these capabilities. - The Onyc can and will manually switch from fluttering to gliding as a way of saving stamina, allowing for further travel and manoeuvrability. - While the Onyc can’t echolocate, it has a diurnal (these bats are speculated to have hunted during the day) boost that gives off smell indicators of nearby prey and food sources. - The Onyc is extremely intelligent and when imprinted has a 10% increase towards all stats. - The Onyc has strong jaws and teeth towards breaking down the hard shells of the arthropods it feeds on, which allows for a blunt bite that can deal a moderate amount of damage if harmed or attacked. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Necromantis Suggestion The species my team and and I think could work as a prehistoric and primarily carnivorous genus of bat that fulfils, but also expands off of WildCard’s idea for the Onyc would be a modified species of Necromantis. Another Eocene species of bat, that while being about half the size of the Onyc in Ark Survival Evolved, it will evolve to feed off of flesh and can carry viral infections, can be domesticated and tamed, and have a temperament and abilities associated with a swarming lifestyle. Common Name: Necromantis Species: Necromantis amivatius Time: Eocene Period Diet: Carnivorous Temperament: Opportunistic (Aggressive when Swarming) Tameable: Yes Rideable: No Breedable: Yes Torpidity Immune: No Taming Method: Knockout Preferred Kibble: Basic & Simple Kibble Preferred Food: Mutton Equipment: “Necromantis” Sash (Level 27) Rider Weaponry: No Humans Can Carry: No Necromantis - Wikipedia en.wikipedia.org Wild "Feeding on a rotting carcass on the forest floor, Necromantis amivatius is a small species of Eocene Chiroptera bat that is primarily carnivorous and lives throughout the forests and cave entrances of the Ark. While they are smaller in size, about 1 metres long in wingspan. They are usually solitary hunters, however. They have evolved a unique social behaviour, which is the ability to coordinate and cooperate in the swarming of organisms ranging from two to three times their own size. Tearing into the flesh and muscle, using their large convergently evolved carnassial-like teeth and robust masseters muscles to tear their selected prey source down to bone. While swarming in bats is usually a form of mating ritual, the trigger of hunger alone can see these bats transition from opportunistic hunters to hostile synchronised swarmers". Domesticated "In order to catch a Necromantis, one must understand the seasons and the availability of food in a region. Droughts, warm weather and migratory behaviours of birds and other animals can trigger this aggressive behaviour in N. amivatius, which means. In order to tame one of these flying mammals, nets and/or chain bola’s can stun an individual Necromantis, but a group will result in failure. Precise observation is key in taming these carnivorous bats". Anatomy Discovered in 1887 in the Quercy Phosphorites Formation of Southern France, Necromantis adichaster or the type species of the incertae sedis classification of the genus Necromantis or the “Death Eater”, was a species of carnivorous Necromantidae Eocene bat that lived in and around the river and forested formation (about 44 to 36 million years ago) near the Lot, Célé and Aveyron rivers and river valleys that would result in a unique ecosystem that would see crocodiles, parrots, owls, false sabre-tooth cats, the hyenadont Paroxyaena, gliding rodents, the Creodonta Paracynohyaenodon, amphiperatherium, amphicynodon and the dog bear Cephalogale flourished. This environment would have been lush and would have consisted of phosphate-rich waterways that would house various frogs and salamanders such as Megalotriton filholi. Apart from N. adichasterk, members of the Necromantis genus have been discovered in other areas, such as the seven isolated teeth that belong to the proposed species of Necromantis fragmentatum from the Late Eocene Djebel Chambi, Tunisia. When looking at the skull design of Necromantis adichaster, N. adichaster has a skull length of about 32 mm and would have had an approximate weight of 47 g, however. With a lack of fossil evidence, the wingspan is unknown, but apart from teeth and skull remains. A postcranial humerus has been discovered that is considered to belong to Necromantis. When looking at it’s jaws, Necromantis’s jaw bones are broad and short in length with large teeth that are convergently evolved carnassials that are not found in bats, and bearing a deep maniable with a wide zygoma. Its muscles within the jaw suggest that Necromantis would have evolved to specialise to grind and crush flesh tissue and bones and would have relied on the crushing force to snatch birds and mammals (vertebrates) and mashing the spine and the back of the head to a pulp. Instantly killing its prey. Its skull is robust, and has a tall sagittal crest or the ridge of bone along the “midline” of the skull which provides support to the jaw muscles. Necromantis would also have had a strong negative tilting position or angle that is thought to correlate with nasal-emission echolocation or the process of the bat emitting low frequency sound pulses through its naval cavity similar to modern day Megadermatidae or false vampire bats and Phyllostomidae or New world leaf-nosed bats. Allowing these soundwaves to convey the bat’s surroundings and bounce off of any predators or prey sources in its environment. Since Necromantis is considered a member of a taxonomic group that has relationships and unknown and/or undefined correlations between its species, comparisons that can be used when making a suggestion of this creature for a subspecies in Ark, would be that recently. Necromantis has been proposed to have a conscious relationship with Rhinolophoidea, the superfamily that includes mouse-tailed bats or Rhinopomatidae, the false vampire bats, the monospecific Kitti’s hog-nosed bat or Craseonycteridae, Rhinonycteridae, Old world leaf-nosed bats or Hipposideridae and the horseshoe bats or Rhinolophidae. In fact one concept that can be used in the creation of Necromantis and in providing detail for this suggestion, is the infectious characteristics peculiar to horseshoe bats and viruses such as coronaviruses (SARS and is responsible for the worldwide outbreak of Covid-19), orthoreoviruses (MRV for example), flaviviruses, and hantaviruses and parasitic conditions such as Kyasanur Forest disease. A majority of viral infections (apart from Rabies and Tacaribe virus) in bats seems to present the concept that bats are barely affected by these invasive forms of genetic material and appear to tolerate the viruses which are attacked, but not eliminated by the bat’s immune system and its production of proteins. In the case of Necromantis amivatius, these bats receive the Mega Rabies infection when they come together in search of food, and from the corpses and carrion they feed on in their surroundings. This results in the lyssavirus-like agent to spread via the saliva of the Necromantis, but also through water droplets in the air passed through the inhalation of other chriopteria and mammals. Resulting in Necromantis amivatius to become a viral carrier for Mega Rabies when it bites and comes close to other warm-blooded mammals. For the appearance of N. amivatius, the animal should have similarities to its original based characteristics and evolutionary adaptations, it shouldn’t “entirely” have features peculiar to fictional recreations such as Genndy Tartakovsky’s Primal, and instead also should have added behaviours and a layout similar to false vampire bats, horseshoe bats and Vespertilionidae bats. Designs that can/could be used would include a mixture between the following: Prehistoric bat munched on mammals … eartharchives.org - Concept design or a reconstruction of a Necromantis Bat. Should have an anatomy and features taken from present day bats like: Sac-winged bats - Encyclopedia of Life eol.org - A photo of a Balantiopteryx or Sac Winged Bat. and/or https://www.inaturalist.org/guide_taxa/4090 - A photo of a Yellow Winged Bat or Lavia frons, a species of false vampire bat or Megadermatidae. Abilities - Based off of Necromantis’s teeth design and layout within the animal’s mouth, but also its proposed prey sources (being vertebrates). Necromantis has an ability known as “Craniota Specialist”, a 5% to 10% (depending on the level - below 100 is 5%, above 100 is 10%) increased attack (both wild and domesticated) damage dealt towards all vertebrates, specifically mammals and birds which depending on their size (a Mesopithecus or Pegomastax for example), can be picked up and mauled by the death eater. - Necromantis's jaws were designed to apply a crushing force which increases its overall melee damage and the strength of its bite force, but also a random percentage of the amount of stress applied to the body of its prey which can result in a mixture or separate applications of the injured and bleeding effects. - The Necromantis will receive a 75% increased gathering buff of organic polymer, meat, hide and fur from specific animals. Non-passerine birds such as the Terror Bird, Dodo, Kairuku, Ichthyornis and Pelagornis and from rodents such as the Jerboa. Rodents and non-passerine birds have been linked to the diet of Necromantis and bats that are considered to have a relationship with the Necromantis genus. This correlates an attribute to this instinct. - Necromantis has a new ability known as “Surged” that is available for Necromantis that are both domesticated and wild. When a Necromantis’s hunger bar enters around the “halfway point”, it can activate the swarming behaviour when around others of its kind. Changing its temperament, its attack speed, manoeuvrability, its cooperation, imprinting and exp gaining (when tamed) and a 5 to 15% increased chance of catching Mega Rabies from being bitten and when in the proximity of a swarm (there is however a 0% chance of a tame catching Mega Rabies if it is not a warm-blooded animal such as mammals - birds, reptiles, amphibians, invertebrates and fish are excluded from the Mega Rabies affect). When a player has more than 2 (or possibly five?) tamed N. amivatus, the swarming ability can be activated if the animal's hunger bars end up dropping. In this case, the player can end up getting Mega Rabies from these tames Necromantis. - Tamed necromantis will send out sound waves through echolocation that will provide a 10 second long indicator of nearby survivor's and animals for the player. This can be turned off in the behavioural settings. - The Necromantis has a special attack/action with only a 2.5% chance of happening, where the bat latches onto a player’s back and begins biting at the back of the neck and/or the windpipe. Performing throat clamping and causing asphyxiation or crushing the essential muscles and bone in the skull and/or spine. - To make Necromantis amivatus more speculated, males of the species end up applying an imprinting and 50% experience buff when in and around their offspring. This behaviour is connected to the monogamous behaviours performed by Spectral Bats and Yellow-Winged Bats where the males end up caring for their offspring. - When equipped with a Necromantis Sash, the Necromantis receives an armoured buff (similar to the Hyaenodon Meatpack), but also allows for more inventory space and a reduction in the weight of organic polymer, meat, mutton, hide, pelt/fur, and cementing paste. However, the main ability of the sash is that it allows the player to control the commands, signals and echolocation markers (players and/or specific animals in the player’s surroundings) that that Necromantis should respond to and convey back to the player and also the distance that each of these commands apply to the Necromantis. This allows for scouting, relaying and defensive roles for the Necromantis. - The Necromantis receives a nocturnal boost. - In-game thunderstorms, rain and (depending on the map) superheats alongside the low presence of animals has a 50 to 75% chance of changing the behaviour of Necromantis in an area, and a 25% chance of them swarming, based off of a behavioural change. Weaknesses - The Mega Rabies effect can’t be applied to reptiles, birds, fish, invertebrates and amphibians. - Invertebrates such as Arthropleura, Mantises, Pulmonoscorpius and Araneo don’t receive any debuffs from Necromantis, and these listed creatures can stun, knockout and paralyse multiple Necromantis, even when they are in their swarming behaviour. - Another speculated weakness that can be applied to Necromantis, is that Necromantis have a predation weakness when in combat with hyaenodons, snakes and felines. Hyaenodons such as Paroxyaena that lived in the Quercy Phosphorites Formation alongside Necromantis, could have preyed on these bats, and modern species of chiroptera are preyed upon usually by birds of prey, snakes (titanoboa), crocodiles and felines (in Ark this would include the Sabertooth as an alternative). These animals reduce the 5% increased attack buff to 2.5% and 7.5% for Necromantis with a level above 100. - Solo Necromantis only have two applied buffs against vertebrates and in combat, are weak to long ranged weaponry and chain bolas (they can rip apart standard bolas). - When in combat with a swarm, a player should use either a combination of or focus specifically on the use of oil jars, wall spikes, jar of pitch (catapult), velonosaurus and turrets in order to have the ability to eliminate more than one Necromantis in case they swarm. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- With most of Ark's oceans being quite desolate, my team and I would suggest a new species of tusked cetacean known as Odobenocetops from Southern Peru and Chile. Odobenocetops Suggestion Common Name: Odobenocetops Species: Odobenocetops chalithalasus Time: Late Miocene to Early Pliocene Period Diet: Bottom Feeder (Molluscivore & Vermivore - Invertivore) Temperament: Curious Tameable: Yes Rideable: Yes Breedable: Yes Torpidity Immune: No Taming Method: Passive Preferred Kibble: Superior Preferred Food: Chitin Equipment: “Odobenocetops Saddle” (Level 58 - Crafted at either a Smithy or on an Argentavis saddle) Rider Weaponry: No Humans Can Carry: No https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odobenocetops#/media/File:Odobenocetops.jpg Wild “Being the top predator of the invertebrate fauna amongst the ocean floor, Odobenocetops chalithalasus is a medium sized (15 ft long) subspecies of tusked Delphinoidea cetacean that thrives along the seabeds of tropical and temperate oceans. Unlike basilosaurus and other whales, Odobenocetops are equipped with a pair of unique asymmetrical tusks that contain millions of nerve endings, which allows these whales to detect the slightest movement, change or occurrence in their environment. A major adaptation and biological characteristic that has led to their success as the island’s main aquatic molluscivore, and of whom will occasionally hunt trilobites and small cephalopods. Using its broad teeth and tongue to crush their shells apart and syphon out their slimy insides”. Domesticated “Like its ancestors, Odobenocetops is incredibly social, curious and shares many distinct behaviours with beluga whales, primarily their elaborate social bonds and the formation of pods that discourages the slightest temptations of the carnivorous fauna that line the open sea. The same behaviour is shared with oceanic tribes, of whom use these animals in the hunting and gathering of sea scorpions, pearls from clams and the elimination of shelled pests, but also the deterrence of mantas, megalodons and the occasional cnidaria that line the seaways”. Anatomy Discovered in 1993 (by Christian de Muizon) in Southern Peru in the Pisco Formation, and later Chile, the genus Odobenocetops is a family of cetaceans that belongs to the superfamily of toothed whales known as Delphinoidea. While considered closely related to Narwhals and Belugas (Monodontidae), porpoises (Phocoenidae) and Albireonidae (an extinct monotype family of porpoise-like toothed whales) since 2014; this clade of tusked whales lived from the Tortonian of the Late Miocene, to the Zanclean of the Pliocene. The paleoenvironment of Odobenocetops in the Pisco Formation of Peru consisted of a biodiverse oceanic environment, with a wide variety of animalia, flora and species. Cetaceans including Odobenocetops were quite frequent with Livyatan melvillei (macroraptorial physeteroid), Acrophyseter (a smaller macroraptorial sperm whale), Atocetus iquensis (a small Miocene toothed whale), Balaenoptera siberi (an early baleen whale), Brujadelphis ankylorostris (an early species of river delphind) and Hemisyntrachelus oligodon (an early genus of Orcininae dolphins) being found at this site (presenting just a handful of the whales found in this location). The formation also contained pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, walruses) such as Acrophoca longirostirus and Piscophoca pacifica, birds such as Pelagornis, pelicans and Spheniscus penguins, the semi-aquatic marine sloth Thalassocnus, Piscogavialis jugaliperforatus (a monospecific genus of “gryposuchine gavialid crocodylian” related to the gharial) and the large prehistoric shark Otodus megalodon. When looking at Odobenocetops’s anatomy, the first characteristic is its tusks. While the tusks are quite brittle in shape or design, the tusks are prominent in males, where this genus experienced a form of sexual dimorphism between males and females. In a male specimen of O. leptodon, the right tusk measured around 1.2 metres or 3.9 ft in length, and the left tusk measured about 25 centimetres or 9.8 inches in length. This difference in size among tusks is currently considered controversial in the paleontological community, as assuming all males of this species and/or genus had asymmetrical tusk lengths is currently unknown (but will be applied to this fictional subspecies in Ark). These tusks or enlarged teeth are speculated to have been a product of convergent evolution similar to narwhals (the difference is that male narwhal tusks develop from the left maxilla or the upper jaw bone, where as male Odobenocetops tusks are implanted in the right premaxilla or the small cranial bones at the very tip of the upper jaw in most animals) and pinnipeds such as walruses, with many stating that these tusks were special sensory organs to help detect invertebrates in the sand or in the animal’s surroundings. When comparing this characteristic to narwhals, their tusks are filled with nerve-rich connective tissues (and about 10 million nerve endings) that creates a “pulp” that acts very similar to the enamel of human teeth, specifically when a tooth become sensitive when presented with cold, acidic or environmental conditions (or substances). This pulp allows the whale to detect the slightest changes in its surroundings, including salinity or salt levels, temperature, the proximity of nearby prey sources and can even support navigation. There also are secondary speculative details connected to the purpose of the tusks in Odobenocetops, ranging from courtship rights, use in intraspecific competition (Jousting amongst males) or sexual selection and/or for territorial purposes. Below are two specimens of Odobenocetops tusks, from both species: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Odobenocetops_peruvianus_5_maf.JPG https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odobenocetops#/media/File:Odobenocetops_leptodon_4_maf.JPG The skull of Odobenocetops leptodon and Odobenocetops peruvianus contain an exact presence or reduction of a melon, a mass of specialised adipose tissue or body fat found in the forehead of all toothed whales. The melon’s function is that it modulates the animal’s vocalisations, acting as a sound lens that is important in communication and echolocation. The orbit or the cavity of the eye socket in the skull is “deeply notched” in Odobenocetops peruvianus that suggests binocular vision (the other species O. leptodon instead has an anterior edge that is slightly concave in shape). The palate of the skull is arched and toothless similar to that in walruses, and with a broad snout, flexible neck able to articulate over 90 degrees and a length of 2.1 metres or 6.9 ft in length (with a weight between 150 and 650 kg’s), Odobenocetops is speculated to have a diet as a bottom feeder. Feeding off of any (invertebrates) small worms, mollusks and thin-shelled bivalves in its habitat, using its powerful tongue to pry open and suck the foot and /or siphon of these mollusks out of their shells (ejecting the shell in the process). Skull of a female specimen of Odobenocetops peruvianus. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odobenocetops#/media/File:Odobenocetops_peruvianus_female.JPG Design When looking at the animals that classify as “related” clades and families to Odobenocetops, one major detail would be in the subspecies’s design. Odobenocetops chalithalasus has a natural countershading that provides camouflage from above or below, a characteristic prominent in porpoises, narwhals, belugas and other dolphins/delphinidae. This texture palette should also vary depending on its location, with members of O chalithalasus having paler skin tones in colder waters, darker colours in deeper waters and more “shaded” tones in tropical or shallow environments. Odobenoetops should have a blowhole that connects to its behaviour (applies to wild and tamed individuals) and an oxygen stat towards surfacing or “breaching”. https://www.ecomare.nl/en/in-depth/reading-material/animals/porpoises/ An example of the Odobenocetops’s natural colourization, in relation to a Harbour Porpoise. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/mammals/facts/narwhal An example of the Odobenocetops’s colder biome colourization, based on narwhals and beluga whales. Abilities and Advantages - Odobenocetops chalithalasus has the presence of a melon like its ancestor O. leptodon, which grants it an echolocation ability (similar to Desmodus) that allows the species to detect the slightest changes in its environment, specifically the movement of other creatures (giving specific outlines towards predator and prey sources). Odobenocetops also has specialised hearing anatomy similar to belugas and narwhals, that can detect the slightest calls and/or movements of other animals, structures or survivors. - The tusks of Odobenocetops allow the creature to detect the slightest shift in climate (temperature) and allows the animal to detect the movements of creatures behind or to the sides of the cetacean. These tusks also allow the Odobenocetops a “fortitude” effect to specific attacks, decreasing the damage and stunning ability of Cnidaria, baryonyx and electrophorus by 25%, this percentage also applies to the chance of escaping a tusoteuthis tentacle grasp, slightly similar in ability to basilosaurus. - Odobenocetops have an insulation effect on survivors. - Wild Odobenocetops males use their tusks in sexual display and in certain circumstances, such as territorial “jousting” which in tamed Odobenocetops (has a 25% occurrence in the proximity of other males), increases the amount of damage the male performs for about 5 minutes in an ability known as “Sparring”. Attack damage and knockback damage is increased by 5%, movement speed by 5% and for 1 minute, a reduction of narcotic effects by 25%. In this process, wild males can also have a 50% chance of becoming “protective”, shifting their temperament when in the presence of females and will defend their pods from predators and survivors. An adaptation that allows the species to avoid or surpass predation. - Odobenocetops are incredibly social and curious animals and will allow a 5% XP boost and imprinting boost to other tames and a 10% to other tamed Odobenocetops. Female Odobenocetops increase this stat by 5% each (10% to other tames, and 15% to other Odobenocetops). - The strong teeth and broad snout adaptations peculiar to Odobenocetops grants it a 75% increased attack damage to all aquatic invertebrates, this includes ammonites, tusoteuthis, trilobites, eurypterid, karkinos and cnidaria. The Odobenocetops also has a 40% increase in gathering and 5% reduction in oil, chitin, pearls, black pearls (10% increase instead), ammonite bile (5% increase instead) and tusoteuthis beaks in an ability known as “Mollusca Specialist”. - The main predator of Odobenocetops in its environment was the giant Lamniformes shark, Otodus megalodon (or simply Megalodon). When in the presence of a megalodon, Odobenocetops will receive a defence and damage reduction status as a form of a natural deterrence and an adaptation from an environmental or predatory pressure that will allow a higher percentage of reflected damage onto its opponent (s). In pods, this effect is multiplied by 2% to 5% (depending on the pod’s individual levels) that affects this status, known/referred to as “Carcharodon Resistance”. - Odobenocetops chalithalasus have binocular vision which increases the rider/player’s visibility underwater. - Odobenocetops have incredible muscular flexibility and the ability to “turn on the dime” without wasting much stamina. - Odobenocetops can receive an additional secondary boost when in the presence of another cetacean, this being Basilosaurus solatiumfecit that grants a form of natural protection for these smaller cetaceans. - The tusks and side of Odobenocetops can be lightly dragged along the sand which can be used to detect creatures or objects in or around that area (this is also an ability that correlates to our Websteroprion suggestion). Weaknesses - Odobenocetops are mammals (and while the basilosaurus primarily lacks an oxygen metre); this cetacean should require an oxygen stat that very slowly gradually decreases the longer it is underwater (which should connect to a natural behaviour of breaching and diving). - Odobenocetops has a very specific diet focused around invertebrates and will not eat fish meat or mutton (basic meat and chitin are its preferred food choices). - While Odobenocetops doesn’t have “tons” of health and can protect itself from smaller to medium sized aquatic predators, mosasaurus, plesiosaurus, spinosaurus and sarcosuchus can quickly outpower an alone Odobenocetops. Specific Drops When killed, the Odobenocetops can be harvested for a small amount of oil from its melon or can slowly produce and store about 20 “Odobeno” oil. Rather than being used as a simple fuel type (not as efficient and productive for gasoline as basilosaurus oil), Odobenocetops oil can be used instead as bait for fishing lures in attracting coelacanths, piranhas, sabertooth salmon and lamprey. Odobenocetops can also drop blubber. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- For the creature vote for Scorched Earth in January of 2023, my team and I found and discussed on numerous animals that could work as additions into the expansion pack/map, though the one animal we suggested and focused on as an inclusion into the map would be a species of Synthetoceras, a genus of ruminants related to deer that would thrive in the canyons, scrublands, badlands, steppes and the borders of the sand dunes of the Ark; originating from Late Miocene North and Central America that was discovered in 1932. Common Name: Synthetoceras Species: Synthetoceras dichalodromeas Time: Late Miocene Diet: Herbivore Temperament: Environmental Tameable: Yes Rideable: Yes Breedable: Yes Torpidity Immune: No Taming Method: Knockout Preferred Kibble: Regular Preferred Food: Wheat, Barley and Sorghum (Primitive Plus) Equipment: “Synthetoceras Saddle” (Level 42 - Crafted at either a Smithy or on an Argentavis saddle) Rider Weaponry: No Humans Can Carry: No Synthetoceras Design - Created by paleoartist/illustrator Mauricio Antón Ortuzar https://chasingsabretooths.wordpress.com/2017/02/01/weird-and-wonderful-reconstructing-synthetoceras/ Wild "Synthetoceras dichalodromeas is a 7 foot (6.8 ft) tall subspecies of Synthetoceratinae Protoceratidae even-toed ungulate that migrates across the scrublands, forests, steppe and deserts of the Scorched Earth. Appearing similar in appearance to antelopes, these deer-like mammals are most known for their bizarre Y-shaped and forked nasal horns present exclusively in males, who use these horns to combat each other in sexual display during the mating season, or against predators who stumble too close into their territory”. Domesticated "While these mammals vary in behaviour, with most being skittish or defensive. They can quickly turn hostile in a second, though. While males usually live in their own formatted territories and females live in communities until the mating season. Comforting and caring for one of these unique animals can provide a survivor with an agile, resistant, defensive and stamina-efficient tame that is adapted for the slightest changes of heat in its desert habitat”. Anatomy Discovered originally in 1932 in the state of Nebraska (the Valentine Formation) by American palaeontologist Ruben Arthur Stirton, the genus Synthetoceras or “Combined Horn'' in Greek was a large protoceratid mammalian from the Late Miocene or from 10.3 to 5.3 Million Years Ago. Found in the Suchilquitongo Formation of Mexico, the Citronelle Formation of Alabama, the Alachua Formation of Florida, Mississippi and Lousinia, and the Goliad Formation of Texas, Synthetoceras would have filled a role similar to other even-toed ungulates such as in Cervidae and ruminants such as deer and pronghorn antelopes. Synthetoceras is most notably distinguishable for its skull, a mass that contains a joint nasal or muzzle horn and its dual or set of two horns above each eyebrow, a characteristic also present in Syndyoceras and Kyptoceras of the same family. However, while appearing similar to the previously mentioned ungulates, Synthetoceras and the protoceratid family are more closely related to the infraorder of Tragulina, which includes the present day clade of Chevrotain or the family of Tragulidae, also known as mouse-deer. The smallest ungulates on the planet, whose ancestors related to Synthetoceras split off from Pecora or horn-bearing ungulates (deer, sheep, bison, cattle, giraffes, antelope, pronghorns and musk deer) during the Early Eocene. The paleoenvironment of Synthetoceras varies across the American continent, though for this suggestion. One location of mention is the Alachua Formation. In the Alachua Formation of Florida, Synthetoceras lived alongside a wide array of unique fauna and flora in a semi-tropical habitat, including ground sloths such as Thinobadistes segnis and Pliometanastes protistus, the elephant Amebelodon, the bear-dog Amphicyon longiramus, bone-crushing dogs such as Epicyon, canids such as Eucyon, the marine otter Enhydritherium terraenovae, camelids including Aepycamelus, Hemiauchenia and Nothokemas floridanus, the oreodont Merycoidodon, different species of peccary, rhinos such as Aphelops and Menoceras, various species of horses including DInohippus, Nanhippus and Cormohipparion, and the dewgong Metaxytherium floridanum. These environments were similar in qualities to the present environment of North America, though the climates and habitats that Synthetoceras thrived in ranged from plains, grasslands and scrublands to temperate forests and wetlands. This species was adaptable, filling a niche as grazing animals who migrated across the Americas, thriving until the Paleoncene and dying out before and around the Great American Interchange. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synthetoceras#/media/File:Synthetoceras_tricoronatus.jpg With the anatomical structures of Synthetoceras, the skulls of Synthetoceras are some of the only fossils known of this genus, present in both S. tricoronatus and S. davisorum. The unique Y shaped fork-tipped horn is present and prominent among Late Miocene and Early Pleistocene protoceratids. Though what is unique about these horns is their purpose. Many palaeontologists speculate that these “horns” were used specifically and are present in only males, who used this sexual display primarily through combat, with territorial disputes being a possibility. Apart from the skull shape of Synthetoceras, the body anatomy is considered to be very similar to other species of ruminants, mainly those belonging to Pecora such as musk deer and saiga antelopes. Design When suggesting an idea or concept for a new antelope-like creature that has different features from current animals in Ark such as Megaloceros or the Irish Elk, the first detail is its design. S. dichalodromeas should contain a presence of its unique fork-shaped horn, as well as a few characteristics related to other members of protoceratidae. Syndyoceras is another genus of Synthetoceratinae protoceratid, of whom shares similar adaptations and features similar to Synthetoceras, but also shares qualities such as an inflated muzzle like that of a Saiga Antelope (Saiga tatarica), the horns present on both clades are compared to the ossicones or the “columnar/conical skin-covered bone structures'' present on the head of giraffes, okapis and their relatives, and Syndyoceras also had foot anatomy similar to early horses (odd-toed ungulates) such as the Equidae horse Merychippus. Kyptoceras is another member of Synthetoceratinae, though one feature present on this genus is that all of its horns are bent/face forwards, including its nasal and brow horns, a natural adaptation of protection that could be slightly implemented into Synthetoceras. Synthetoceras should also bear physical features and a coat similar in design to a mouse-deer, due to their common ancestry and taxonomy, when referring to other modern species (most outside of the Tragulina classification). Another detail I wanted to add for variety is a different form of temperament, this being environmental. When under stress (low health), in combat or injured, Synthetoceras will change behaviour differently depending on the individual, though will have a higher percent chance of either becoming aggressive, territorial or shy in this specific circumstance. Their temperament should vary individually, but also for both genders, with males being more territorial. An aspect present in many modern ruminants such as American Bison, Water Buffalo, Elk and Moose, where males are more dominant in herds or in protecting their territory from rivals, intruders or predators. https://www.khaosok.com/national-park/mouse-deer/ The Greater Mouse-Deer or Tragulus napu is a prime example of what the coat of the animal should resemble in layout/arrangement in patterns. https://www.vampires.com/fanged-miniature-mouse-deer-returns-from-the-dead/comment-page-1/ The fangs or specialised canine teeth present in both musk deer (a member of Pecora - not directly related or belonging to the same infraorder as Synthetoceras or Protoceratidae) and is present in mouse-deer, of whom should be added to the design of Synthetoceras, as a speculative feature when compared to present day members of Tragulidae who are distantly, yet more closely related to Protoceratidae than that of Elk, Moose, Caribou or the previously mentioned musk deer. A secondary reason for the inclusion of fangs, would be that other Protoceratidae such as the genus Syndyoceras, Leptoreodon and specifically Protoceras bear these “tusks”. A skull of Protoceras is displayed below: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protoceras#/media/File:Protoceras_celer.jpg In the front of a Male Protoceras skull, a pair of sharp teeth, tusks or “fangs” are apparent. Even if the two species belong to the same family of Protoceratidae, though different subfamilies. The Ark subspecies could/should share homage or similarity to Protoceras and its relatives. https://www.britannica.com/animal/saiga The proboscis and the anatomy of the torso and neck region of a Saiga Antelope could be used as a base model for the Synthetoceras. The secondary horns or ossicones of the Synthetoceras were not spiral-horned (or corkscrewed) like that of a Saiga, so the only characteristics that should be different is the head shape apart from the nasal cavity, the horns (both above the eye-brow and nasal horn) and the front and hind legs of the Synthetoceras that should be more robust in shape in comparison. Abilities - Synthetoceras dichalodromeas is a robust and adaptable extremophile able to survive the harsh weather, droughts and periods of limited grazing plant matter available, the animal has a unique digestive system and stomach similar to camels that can withhold and process foods with greater production of stamina. Allowing Synthetoceras to run quite quickly in short to long bursts (depending on its stamina and the level of the tame). - Male Synthetoceras can and will use their sharp Y-shaped forked horns to slash and impale rivals and opponents, applying either the “Bleeding!” debuff, or a new (5% chance of applying) a status effect known as “Hemorrhage” where the target slowly ends up bleeding out to death. Medical brews and special treatment are the only methods able to remove this effect (a more severe version of the Injured effect in simplification). - Synthetoceras Females are more agile, and instead have a greater amount of damage output through the use of their specialised hindlegs to kick and break the bones of predators. While Synthetoceras lacked cannon bones around their hooves, the compact muscle arrangements around its legs could break bone or kill an enemy target if kicked in the skull or ribs (does not apply a narcotic effect like that of an Equus). - Unlike Megaloceros, Synthetoceras were not specialised for jumping, instead. These defensive and athletic animals rely more on stamina, movement speed and the ability to quickly sidestep or turn to slam or slice enemy targets. - Present in both Syndyoceras, mouse-deer and in members of Pecora with the musk-deer, Synthetoceras bares 3 inch long tusk-like canine teeth that the males and females use as a defence mechanism that the males use to bite and tear at rivals. - Synthetoceras and other protoceratids are known for their incisors and molar teeth present in the mouth cavities that could break down, grind and digest a wide variety of plant matter, including (speculative) cactus fibre, charcoal, cotton, rare flowers and a wide variety of berries. Allowing the Synthetoceras to not compete entirely with the harvesting roles of the Megaloceros or the Equus. - Synthetoceras apply an insulated status effect and have a proximity buff that decreases the effects of sandstorms and wind currents on nearby tames and survivors, due to their lightly packed fur coats. - Synthetoceras shares similar qualities to Syndyoceras, baring the Saiga-like trunk/proboscis that helps the animal filter out sand and dust in its habitat, resulting in the Synthetoceras naturally generating sand in its inventory in an ability I would nickname as “Vellus Collector” (an ability similar to the sand collected by a player during a sandstorm). - The Synthetoceras subspecies with its convergently evolved trunk (that is speculated and inspired by the Saiga antelope), is able to cool off or warm up its own body temperature and bloodstream, via mucus glands present in the downwards facing trunk (a temperature-based ability that can cool down the animal and its rider during sandstorms, heatwaves, periods of heatstroke and overheat). - Male Synthetoceras have a mateboost ability that increases experience, imprinting and levelling rates to both themselves and females where it enhances mating capabilities. This is based on the glands around the lower jaws of male Greater Mouse Deer or Tragulus napu which increases mating hormones in nearby females. - To survive in the desert and scrubland landscape of the Scorched Earth, Synthetoceras will vary in their daily grazing methods, with most being nocturnal grazers. This allows these animals to migrate, travel and graze on the hardy conifers, shrubs and grasses (Synthetoceras fed on tough grasses in its biome in North and Central America) in its environment, during the night when external temperatures are cooler and less hostile. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- With all the features and creatures present in the oceans of Ark, most water bodies are quite empty, or have a lack of interesting fauna and floral biodiversity. A characteristic (biodiverisity) that my team and I hope will be implemented more into Ark 2 for aquatic environments, though for animals to be introduced to Ark. One taxonomic classification of animalia that is usually under-looked are crustaceans, with only the Karkinos being present in Ark on specific maps. For a new addition, why not a Carboniferous Period crustacean distantly related to Mantis Shrimp, crustaceans who have the fastest and strongest punches in the animal kingdom. For size purposes, most Mantis Shrimp are quite small with only a few species growing up to or around 40 cm's in length (specifically the species Lysiosquillina maculata), this fictional species will be quite larger than its early ancestors, both for adaptive radiation and biological purposes, and because about 80% of animals in Ark are oversized (common trend). Common Name: Aenigmacaris Species: Aenigmacaris tromeronychus Time: Early Carboniferous Diet: Omnivore (primarily Durophagous) Temperament: Territorial Tameable: Yes Rideable: Yes Breedable: Yes Torpidity Immune: No Taming Method: Knockout Preferred Kibble: Superior Preferred Food: Chitin Equipment: “Aenigmacaris Saddle” (Level 71 - Crafted at either a Smithy or an Argentavis saddle) Rider Weaponry: No Humans Can Carry: No https://www.thefossilforum.com/index.php?/collections-database/arthropods/crustaceans/aenigmacaris-cornigerum-schram-horner-1979-r88/ Wild "Lurking within crevices in the seafloor, Aenigmacaris tromeronychus is a gigantic species of proto-mantis shrimp that lurks in tropical and humid oceanic environments. Ranging from reefs to abrasion coasts, these crustaceans are more robust, aggressive and armoured than their Earth counterparts. Their most notable feature, the dactyl clubs on their raptorial appendages, have evolved chitinous plates and extensions of their exoskeleton that allow the mantis shrimp to strike at speeds faster than a bullet. Enough force to break through mollusk shells, the carapaces of trilobites and break bone in vertebrates''. Domesticated "Survivors who tame Aenigmacaris find that its specialised forearms, its eyes that are able to detect various wavelengths of light, its ability to block the attacks of foes with its telson, and its ability to turn and move at short-timed bursts quicker than a dime; makes this crustacean a perfect siege and shielding mount that can impact its surrounding habitat with the snap of its claws''. Anatomy Discovered originally and documented from 1978 to 1979 by Frederick Robert Schram and Jack Horner, the species Aenigmacaris cornigerum has been found throughout Montana, similar to other Aeschronectida crustaceans. However, Aenigmacaris has more characteristics prominent in this genus, and is considered more closely related to mantis shrimps or modern day Hoplocarida than other proto-genera. A. cornigerum was found in the Late Mississippian subperiod Bear Gulch Limestone, more specifically in the Heath Formation of Montana, while the species A. minima has been found in the Kinney Clay Pit or Kinney Brick Quarry, and the Late Pennsylvanian subperiod Madera Formation/Group both in the Manzanita Mountains of New Mexico. Not much has been documented about this genus, with these shrimp being on average, around 102 mms in length (the fictional species is around 5 ft in length and 4.7 to 5 ft at its thorax to antennae). Like most crustaceans in their taxonomic classification, they had a layered chitinous exoskeleton and were quite abundant in the fossil record in their given sites and formations. Aenigmacaris had the basic body plan of most Aeschronectida, that including 3 long flagellate antenna, an enlarged abdomen, a shortened thorax, 3 segmented thoracic protopods (appendages), cephalic kinesis, pleopodal epipodite gills, an articulated rostrum and their body plan being divided into four segments or tagmata (including a food-processing unit, the pleon (the abdomen of a crustacean) and tailfan (used in propulsion), the walking-appendages and the sensorial unit). The carapace of these crustaceans covers the entire thorax and their compound eyes are stalked on the anterior cephalon of the head. The paleoenvironment of the Late Mississippian Carboniferous Bear Gulch Lime in the Madera Group/Formation in Central Montana consisted of a variety of fauna and flora, such as the earliest Synziphosurina Anderella parva, different genera of shrimp such as Belotelson magister and Sairocaris centurion, Carboniferous Period Horseshoe crabs like Euproops, cephalopods (ammonites, nautiloids and coleoids), a wide array of worms (nematodes, bristle worms and ribbon worms), cartilaginous fish such as Belantsea montana, Debeerius ellefseni, Falcatus falcatus, Stethacanthus, Thrinacodus and Squatinactis montanus, Actinopterygians or ray-finned fish like Cyranorhis bergeraci and Discoserra pectinodon, and lobe-finned fish including early coelocanths. In the formations Aegnimacaris cornigerum specimens have been uncovered, many of these shrimp appear to have fed on small prey present in and around algal growths. Design While the original genus of Aenigmacaris lacked any presence of clubbed claws, the fictional restoration Aenigmacaris tromeronychus has features prominent with Holocene Mantis Shrimps, the only living ancestors that have the closest relations to these shrimp. For the design of this species, A. tromeronychus should have the base body plan of Aeschronectida crustaceans, such as Cragopsis socialis with features like the shield carapace over the thorax, its limb count, feeding appendages and telson: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Crangopsis-socialis-Salter-1861-OM-B-13970-Partial-reconstruction-Note-the-upraised_fig5_277674538 For a colour pallet, the texture of the Aegnimacaris should vary amongst individuals, with some having bright patterns similar to a Peacock Mantis Shrimp (Odontodactylus scyllarus😞 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odontodactylus_scyllarus Or The Purple Spot Mantis Shrimp or Gonodactylus smithii https://lifg.australianmuseum.net.au/Group.html?groupId=I5dgCwCr And others might have more bland or camouflage-based colour pallets designed to blend in with the oceanic floor: Squilla Empussa https://ucmp.berkeley.edu/arthropoda/crustacea/malacostraca/eumalacostraca/royslist/species.php?name=s_empusa While having characteristics present with the original Aenigmacaris, the fictional species should have smasher-type or “clubbed” dactyl appendages to differentiate it from other mantis shrimp species, but would play as an evolutionary and advantageous adaptation for this crustacean’s survival in the harsh biosphere/ecosystem centred around Ark Survival Evolved. The tailfin and telson should contain a reinforced exoskeleton and plating in correlation with its abilities and defensive purpose. Abilities - Aenigmacaris can boil surrounding seawater through the use of their forelimbs, purposefully superheating and vaporising water with the spring of its club-like appendages. This behaviour present in mantis shrimps demonstrates how the intense velocity and momentum created from their claws can result in the production of cavitation bubbles and enough force to result in sonoluminescence. Creating a flash of light (which has a 10% of stunning prey - Stunning Ability) with temperatures warmer than 4000℃. Aenigmacaris can provide heat absorption and warmness insulation effects within a given designation around the crustacean towards nearby survivors, when in combat or spring-loading its claws (which can also boil, burn or deal thermal damage to enemies that are struck by its claws). - Aenigmacaris tromeronychus have a melee attack known as “Shockwave (Shochwaved when dealted to opponents)''. When the pressure in a cavitation bubble collapses due to a shift in said pressure and force from potential energy that increases in a surrounding water body, from the use of their raptorial claws. Modern day mantis shrimp can create “shockwaves' ' that can stun or kill prey. This physical ability could be implemented into this fictional species of Aegnimacaris. - Similar to the 450 different species of Earth mantis shrimp, the compound eyes of Aenigmacaris can detect the multiple wavelengths of the light spectrum, similar to humans, but can detect ultraviolet and polarised light. Allowing these crustaceans to detect and differentiate prey from the blue reflections and background of the continuous ocean depths. Granting the Aenigmacaris a visual enhancing ability that allows the crustacean to detect the slightest movement signals and disturbances in its surrounding environment. - Peacock Mantis Shrimp and other “Smasher-based or non-sparring appendage” Stomatopoda are known for their ability to break through glass and structures with the momentum of a 22. Calibre bullet, capable of easily devastating aquariums. If this was applied to a gigantic species, the potential energy released would be more impactful. Aenigmacaris have an applied buff known as “Splintered”. The longer a charged snap is held, the damage increases and can dent or immediately destroy or decrease the fortitude of foundations, structures and building materials depending on the set or material. - Aenigmacaris have a quick turning radius, though it requires a lot of stamina. - Based on the characteristics present in Aenigmacaris and other Aeschronectida, the carapace protects the thorax and the body parts connected to the head. Providing further safeguarding for vulnerable organs and weak points that can potentially be advantageous for predators. This exoskeleton plating or “shell” blocks about 80% of oncoming melee and range damage dealt to the head. - When in combat, both wild and tamed Aenigmacaris can fold their body’s inwards (in a foetal position) with their telson, tail plates and tailfin bending towards the body. Being able to absorb and deflect incoming melee damage with resistant and relatively thick armour plated or calcified cuticles along the tail that naturally protect mantis shrimp and Aenigmacaris during territorial telson sparring sessions. - Aenigmacaris will naturally hunt trilobites, ammonites, Eurypterid sea scorptions and small fish. While they don’t have a gathering or material collection boost, these crustaceans receive an experience point boost, similar to imprinting, though it applies to specific species of aquatic organisms. There is also a small chance (5%) of a buff known as “Triturate '', where the shells of marine arthropods decrease in defence and health recovery or natural regeneration when struck by a Aenigmacaris snap, breaking opposing shells in the process. - Knockout taming these organisms is a dangerous process. High-level wild Aenigmacaris can one shot survivors given the time and chance, which is why elasmosaurus and Dunkleosteus placoderms are recommended in distracting or degrading the armour and health of the Aenigmacaris to about 15%. Allowing the player to feed the mantis shrimp chitin or kibble (higher efficiency) every 5 to 10 minutes, with its health very slowly regenerating. This process will continue until the animal is tamed. - Present in most mantis shrimp species, both males and females are monogamous and will only have one specific mate throughout their entire lifespan. This creates trust bonds, and coordination/cooperation between the pair that can influence the stats of offspring Aenigmacaris and the imprinting process of larvae. Weaknesses - To balance out the abilities of the Aengimacaris, these crustaceans have a slower movement speed and swimming capabilities. Instead, adapted for a territorial, ambush-based and melee implemented niches/roles. - Aenigmacaris are weak to large or specialised oceanic predators, including Elasmosaurus (are able to manoeuvre and outpace the attacks of Aenigmacaris), Mosasaurs, Baryonyx (stun attack), Spinosaurus, Dunkleosteus (are able to break through the exoskeleton of Aenigmacaris and are not affected by about 75% of the defensive buffs and boosts applied by the Aenigmacaris) and Sarcosuchus (death roll and agility). - Mantis Shrimp and numerous different species of aquatic crustaceans can survive out of water for a given time, though Aenigmacaris have a unique metre that monitors their moisture levels from surrounding influences. Temperature, climate, humidity and weather can affect stress levels and the conditions that allow these crustaceans to survive outside of water. - Based on studies on Peacock Mantis Shrimp (Odontodactylus scyllarus) The snapping of the dactyl clubs on the forearms of a mantis shrimp decreases their overall force, momentum and velocity when outside of a water source. Punching at an estimated half variable/percentage approximately speed-wise when in the presence of air, when compared to water. This applies to Aenigmacaris where melee damage is debuffed by a percentage of 50% or (½) outside of saltwater. - Aenigmacaris larvae are very feeble and infirm, being a potential prey source to numerous predatory organisms including cnidaria, electrophorus, megalodons, mantas and megapiranhas. Increasing the requirements/demands essential to raising and breeding these crustaceans. Stats/Attributes For reasons involving gameplay, the Aenigmacaris has a moisture metre that affects how long the crustacean can be out of water. This does not mean it correlates with oxygen levels, rather an Aenigmacaris can be standing in a lake, pond or a tidepool and have a full moisture meter (kind of similar to a hydration metre) while its oxygen metre depletes. Marine crustaceans such as shrimp, barnacles and their prehistoric relatives could/can stay out of water for limited periods of time, before having to go back into the water to filter oxygen molecules through the use of internal gills, however this is a stat that is upgradable to allow the Aenigmacaris to thrive longer outside with more developed oxygen and moisture levels (rather than being able to simply travel on land without any natural conflicting repercussions). Attributes Wild - Level Increase Additive Multiplicative Health 1150 +230 +5.4% 0.07% Stamina 500 +50 +10% Oxygen - (Applies only when outside a water body) 150 +15 +10% Moisture 100 +10 +5% 1% Food 4500 +450 +10% Weight 900 +18 +4% Melee Damage +4 +1.7% 8.5% 17.6% Movement Speed 100% +1% Torpidity 1200 +80 class = "gray" 0.5 The fictional species of Aenigmacaris has a higher torpidity, hunger and melee damage percentage than a majority of Ark's midgame creatures, though in health, oxygen and stamina, is weaker in stat increase than the Karkinos (allows the Karkinos to have advantages over the Aenigmacaris and be more distinct). Location While Aenigmacaris would be more map specific or would spawn in water bodies present in Ark Survival Evolved 2, my team and I have suggested some current locations that this shrimp could thrive in on the following maps. If you want a more detailed map of spawn locations then reply below and I will get to it: The Island: Dead Island (Northeast - Rare), Southeastern Shores (Southeast - Very Rare), Southern Islets (Southeast - Very Rare), South Haven (Bottom Left Corner of the Southeast - Uncommon), Cragg’s Island (Bottom Left Corner of the Southwest - Uncommon) Aberration: Luminous Marshlands (Very Rare - Bioluminescent Aberrant Version) Crystal Isles: The Tropics (Uncommon - Southwest), The White Shoals (Uncommon - Southwest) Fjordur: Midgard - Ocean around Balheimer (Very Rare - Around Southeastern continent/landmass) All modern species of mantis shrimp live in and around Earth’s equator line in lush, warm, subtropical and tropical climates in saltwater habitats, ranging from Oceania to India, Madagascar, Brazil, Massachusetts and California across the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic oceans, the Mediterranean Sea, Caribbean Sea, Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Once having lived in the damp waterways of the Carboniferous Period of Montana (which was located around the equator on the supercontinent of Pangaea) and being related to Holocene mantis shrimp genera, Aenigmacaris would live in warmer climates, ranging from reefs and “abrasion coasts”, to tropical coastlines and estuaries. My team and I decided that for current maps, the Aenigmacaris should have a "rarer" presence in a majority of Ark's ocean's, with most being found in warmer climates and others hidden in and around the seafloor. There should be a balance between both abilities, stats and spawning locations across all creatures introduced or suggested for Ark Survival Evolved in order to avoid imbalance and potential community dislike, which has been seen in current Ark creatures like the Astrodelphis, Managarmr and Velonasaur. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- This idea is based on my team’s suggestions, though shares similar concepts present in artwork from DracoSerpentor77 at https://survivetheark.com/index.php?/forums/topic/966-introducing-the-burrowing-messenger-diictodon, and RyuouShenron with the Bulbasaurus at https://survivetheark.com/index.php?/forums/topic/687803-bulbasaurusa-slightly-larger-dinosaur-resembling-lystrosaurus. They deserve credit and reference for similar yet great ideas and I would definitely recommend checking their ideas out. Common Name: Diictodon Species: Diictodon aberratios Time: Late Permian Diet: Herbivorous Temperament: Colonial Tameable: Yes Rideable: No Breedable: Yes Torpidity Immune: No Taming Method: Passive Preferred Kibble: Regular Preferred Food: Savoroot Equipment: “Diictodon Burrowing-Satchel” (Level 40 - Crafted at either a Smithy, by hand in a Player’s inventory or on an Argentavis saddle) Rider Weaponry: No Humans Can Carry: Yes https://nixillustration.com/science-illustration/2020/diictodon/ Wild "On guard, a Diictodon aberratios scout watches from a mound, monitoring in awareness of its surroundings. About 1.6 ft in height, these small subterranean specialists are abundant in their tunnel systems throughout the bioluminescent marshes and element falls throughout the Aberration. Colonial animals, Diictodon are endurant and able to survive the harshest conditions, mainly through their social networks and behaviours, thriving off the roots, water-filled tubers and aquatic plants that line the riverbanks, floodplains and hills. Their unique muscle anatomy and tusks in males are designed for a fossoriality lifestyle, allowing them to avoid predation and fill the niche as perfect subterranean herbivores' '. Domesticated "Being quite social and only becoming aggressive if disturbed or threatening their offspring, Diictodon are curious animals, and can be easily domesticated. They are very loyal and tend to bond easier and faster in the presence of other Diictodon. Their complex social bonds create hierarchical and role-based occupations within these communities designated to each Diictodon member. This behaviour can be used by a survivor to access materials from underground and expand their territory. Anatomy Discovered originally and named in 1876 by Richard Owen, Diictodon or “two-weasel toothed” is an extinct genus of pylaecephalid dicynodont synapsid or stem-mammals that originate from the Late Permian on the supercontinent of Pangaea. More than 6 species have been considered under this genus, including D. galeops, D. feliceps, D. grimbeeki, D. ictidops, D. palustris, D. parrington, and D. psittacops, mainly from digsites in Zambia (the Madumabisa Mudstone of the Luangwa Basin), South Africa (the Tropidostoma Assemblage Zone of the Teekloof Formation, the Tapinocephalus Assemblage of the Abrahamskraal Formation, the Dicynodon Assemblage Zone of the Balfour Formation, and the Cistecephalus Assemblage Zone of the Middleton Formation), and China (Guodikeng Formation). Diictodon was one of the most successful and widespread species of synapsids to have lived in the Late Permian, with approximately half of all South African Permian fossil specimens belonging to the genus. Their elaborate tunnelling and digging behaviours allowed them to fill a vacant niche and resulted in a widespread range, primarily present in floodplains and the arid scrublands that dotted the supercontinent. Diictodon is one of the most popular “stem-mammals' ' or therapsids, sharing many features prominent in mammals, and convergently in subterranean species. Diictodon had disproportionately large heads with a horny beak, short, round/cylindrical body, stubby yet highly developed muscular legs and 5 sharp claws on each wide hand. Males bear erupted and downward facing tusks (and being larger - sexual dimorphism) from the upper lip, while the females were tuskless. Their jaws were quite simplified with some bones dedicated to hearing, and their humerus/humerual bone shows no signs of growth marks, suggesting further digging adaptations. Their beaks and skull anatomy were designed for uprooting water-rich tubers and underground root systems. The tunnels of Diictodon were quite large and would spiral down in a corkscrew (convergently similar to the rodent Paleocastor) into the ground (at depths of a maximum of 1 ½ metres, though most were on average 0.5 metres or 1.6 feet in depth), eventually reaching a terminal chamber where the young were nurtured. Most Diictodon burrows also belonged to other species, usually being abandoned. Diictodon lived more gopher-like lifestyles when compared to other subterranean organisms (including the fictional species), living in deep solitary burrows that were not connected to other Diictodon tunnels. Their burrows played a crucial role in surviving the Permian’s drastic and arid climate with the intense thermal heat present in the deserts and scrublands of Pangaea. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diictodon#/media/File:Iziko_Diictodon_Corkscrew.JPG Of the habitats that Diictodon has been uncovered, one paleoenvironment of focus would be the Balfour Formation. The Balfour Formation contains a wide variety of Late Permian fauna, primarily burnetiamorph biarmosuchians, rubidgeine gorgonopsians, therapsids like Inostrancevia, therocephalians like Moschorhinus kitchingi, the primitive species Charassognathus gracilis, parareptilia, captorhinidae reptiles, younginiformes such as Youngina capensis, fish and temnospondyl amphibians. Flora such as the genus Glossopteris were also abundant at the site. The site is sandstone-rich and contains the remains of meandering rivers and foreland basins. Design The design of Diictodon should be similar to the original species, containing the same basic anatomy: https://www.pbs.org/video/how-dinosaurs-coupled-up-knepg5/ The species of synapsid should also contain features that correlate with the map Aberration, that being a small bioluminescent organ on the top of the snout, similar to Bulbasaurus: https://thecreaturecodex.tumblr.com/post/174445236519/bulbasaurus Its colour palette should consist of more vibrant blues, greens and sometimes dark purples to blend in and camouflage with the terrain and ground of the habitats it thrives in. Abilities - Diictodon and their Dicynodontid relatives are social organisms, living in communities similar to meerkats or ground squirrels. Diictodon aberratios are known to settle in communities, usually with tunnel systems and burrows that connect to different hubs or nests. This behaviour grants tamed Diictodon an imprinting and “social boost” on specific states such as health, stamina and movement speed. - Within these communities, females do not nurture their young. In fact infant Diictodon specimens preserved in discovered brood chambers suggest that males might have raised the infants and provided parental care within this genus. This is due to males being tusked and being able to dig burrows and protect said burrow, unlike female Diictodon specimens that are tuskless. - Using humeral exertion in rotation thrusting and the strength of their tusks, Diictodon are able to burrow. Unlike a Purlovia, Diictodon will burrow and move underground in a given direction similar to rollrats. Diictodon can be given specific items that they will search for, either on the surface or underground, including blue, red and green gems, metal, stone or (2.5% chance) element ore. Any materials found in a specified area will be returned back to its delivery points (which is located outside and away from a burrow). Their movements can be tracked using a Transponder Tracker paired with a Diictodon Burrowing-Stachel, this can allow a player to approximate the location of Diictodon underground and increase carrying capacity by 50%. - Diictodon has an imprinting level system. - Diictodon can be taught (in their behaviour menu) to scout based on imprint levels. The higher imprint and social boost from other tamed Diictodon members grants certain Diictodon the ability to scout. By creating small holes in the Ark’s surface, Diictodon scouts will stay on high alert and send calls to the rest of the community. These messages are then transferred to the nesting points, which in the case of an attack on a Diictodon colony. Diictodon will retreat back into their burrows, or send calls that can be heard and relayed by either another Diictodon or a tamed Parasaurolophus. - Certain males based on imprinting levels can be designated to work as caretakers, protecting the young and tending to their food. Food in their inventory works as a miniature trough in times of hunger, when offspring are starving. - At max imprinting, a set of Diictodon can be relocated out of a colony as a mob (a traditional colony) or form at random a separate mound system known as “soil plugs”, a behaviour (which can be cancelled by the player) present in gophers and large burrowing rodentia (as well as the actual genus Diictodon). This form of colony is more individualistic, with certain Diictodon living in mating pairs within a single burrow. This enhances a mating boost by 10% (influencing mutations and dedication in raising offspring - nurturing), but does not increase social bonding amongst other Diictodon. - In the scenario that offspring are fatally vulnerable, male and female Diictodon will fight back predators given the chance. A colony of Diictodon can easily overwhelm and scare off smaller predators, mainly through the use of sharp shear-like teeth (once a predator is injured, Diictodon will not chase the predator and rather regroup in their tunnels). - If paired with a wild roll rat, Diictodon can burrow underground and follow roll rats as they search for food, picking up any scraps or drops unrooted by the emerge of a roll rat. Weakness - To balance out the abilities of the Diictodon, these animals are quite small and can be picked off by larger carnivores if they are outside of their burrows (ranging from Raptors to Sarcosuchus). - Aberrant and normal Purlovia are specialised in uprooting tunnelling Diictodon. If a Purlovia stumbles across a Diictodon while it is underground, it can dig the small dicynodont out and quickly ensnare and kill the animal. This still applies if the Diictodon tries to dig itself underground, being applied a slowness and cancellation ability for burrowing. - In the settling of colonies, Diictodon located too close to certain river bodies are both at risk from sarcosuchus, kaprosuchus, baryonyx and spinos. Diictodon can also drown if trying to swim across certain water bodies, and in a 5% chance. Colonies built on riverways can flood, causing a debuff that can destroy nesting sites and kill offspring within the nests. Specimens of Diictodon have been uncovered in and around Permian floodplains, with some being suggested to have drowned from water flowing into the nests during the wet season with river bursts. Stats Attributes Wild - Level Increase Additive Multiplicative Health 70 +14 +6.4% 0.07% Stamina 80 +8 +10% Oxygen 100 +10 +10% Food 300 +30 +10% Weight 40 +2 +4% Melee Damage +0.4 +1.7% 7% 17.6% Movement Speed 100% +1% 300% Torpidity 50 +4 class = “grey” 0.5 Spawning Locations Diictodon aberratios primarily lives within two specific layers of Aberration, this consisting of the bio-luminescent layer and the molten element layer: https://ark.fandom.com/wiki/Luminous_Marshlands_(Aberration) and https://ark.fandom.com/wiki/Aberration For the Diictodon concept, it is similar to DracoSerpentor77's at https://survivetheark.com/index.php?/forums/topic/966-introducing-the-burrowing-messenger-diictodon, and RyuouShenron's with the Bulbasaurus at https://survivetheark.com/index.php?/forums/topic/687803-bulbasaurusa-slightly-larger-dinosaur-resembling-lystrosaurus/ . Go check them out for their ideas and concepts using Diictodon or Dicynodonts. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- While Ceratosaurus has been added to Ark Additions, rather than suggesting a concept on Ceratosaurus for its inclusion in Ark Survival Ascended on the Center map, my team and I have suggested the inclusion of a different yet once considered “controversial” species of Ceratosaurid from Argentina, known as Genyodectes. Common Name: Genyodectes Species: Genyodectes anoteros Time: Early Cretaceous Period Diet: Carnivore Temperament: Opportunistic Tameable: Yes Rideable: Yes Breedable: Yes Torpidity Immune: No Taming Method: Passive & Knockout Preferred Kibble: Superior Preferred Food: Raw Mutton Equipment: “Genyodectes Saddle” (Level 54- Crafted at either a Smithy or on an Argentavis saddle) Rider Weaponry: Yes Humans Can Carry: No Genyodectes artistic depiction designed by Deviantart user kingrexy at https://www.deviantart.com/kingrexy/art/Genyodectes-815452228 Wild "Across the plains, marshes, estuaries and transition zones of open woodlands throughout the Center, these habitats are the ideal hunting grounds for Genyodectes anoteros. This solitary hunter of small to medium-sized prey, this Ceratosaurid theropod is an adaptable ecological specialist, able to alter its diet depending on environmental conditions and thrive in semi-aquatic habitats”. "With its niche radiation across the Center, it is no wonder that its endurance and brute force are unmatched. Being able to stalk prey in the shadows without making a sound, combined with its agile nature, a robust skull design that is enforced by specialised jaw muscles and serrated teeth. Any prey that tries to escape from its grasp will experience a terrible fate, teeth designed to dig deeper into the flesh with every struggle. Causing mass haemorrhaging, and acting like a natural bear trap”. Domesticated "A sight to behold with its quick, keen and adept capabilities, in order to catch one or probably sneak up on the ambush expert are difficulties that most survivors consider not worth the challenge. However, rather than depending on a social hierarchy, nocturnal behaviour or sheer force, this flexible, smart, semi-aquatic and opportunistic predator appears more than just a perceived savage forager. Rather, a widespread top-predator at the top of its domain”. - Helena Walker Anatomy https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genyodectes#/media/File:Genyodectes_saurus_jaws.jpg Discovered in 1901 by English Palaeontologist Sir Arthur Smith Woodward from the Cerro Barcino Formation also known as the Gorro Frigio Formation in the Chubut Province of Argentina. The holotype uncovered that belonged to Genyodectes consisted of an incomplete snout with the premaxilla, contents from both maxillas of the skull, the right and left dentary or the lower jawbone, numerous long, curved teeth, a fragment of the left splenial and bones above the dentary (the supradentaries). These were the only skeletal pieces known of this organism which was the second non-avian dinosaur excavated from South America. https://www.deviantart.com/jorobania/art/Genyodectes-skull-reconstruction-934358036 Genyodectes was not originally designated as a Ceratosaurus and rather as a nomen dubium or an “unknown application” of theropod, which over a span of a hundred years of argumentation over fragmented evidence. Genyodectes would be designated its own genus containing one type species known as Genyodectes serus. Genyodectes (which originates from the words "jaw" and "bite" in Greek) became a major significant specimen of dinosauria uncovered from South America, being the most complete known South American theropod species until the 1970s. However, from 2000 to 2010, Genyodectes would be argued towards its ecological placement in the taxonomic order, with some arguing it was a megalosaurid, a tyrannosaurid, a “incertae sedis” and an abelisaurid (a senior synonym of Abelisaurus). In 2004, Oliver W. M. Rauhut concluded its taxonomic placement, primarily with reevaluation of the specimen. Genyodectes serus lacked important abelisaurid and tyrannosaurid synapomorphies that were shared by two or more taxa, primarily those with neoceratosaurian traits. This implied that Genyodectes was closer to and possibly descended from theropods related to the Late Jurassic Ceratosaurus than other derived abelisaurids. Rauhut specified “that the premaxillary teeth are arranged in an overlapping en echelon pattern with the longest maxillary teeth crowns no longer apicobasally than the minimal dorsoventral depth of the mandible. Differing from Ceratosaurus in the presence of four, as opposed to three, premaxillary teeth”, according to https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235907356_Provenance_and_anatomy_of_Genyodectes_serus_a_large-toothed_Ceratosaur_Dinosauria_Theropoda_from_Patagonia. https://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0895981116301341-gr1.jpg and https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0895981116301341 The paleoenvironment of Genyodectes from the Early to Late Cretaceous Cerro Barcino Formation within the Cerro Castaño stratigraphic member unit (the member is 113 to 100.5 million years old- Genyodectes is estimated to have existed from 112 million years ago) that contains evidence of humid flood-plain like conditions. This environment allowed for a wide array of fauna to thrive, including the Peirosaurid Barcinosuchus gradilis, the Gigantosaurin Carcharodontosaurid known as Tyrannotitan chubutensis, titanosaurids such as the lognkosaur Patagotitan mayorum (which existed 101.62 million years ago), Chubutisaurus insignis, abelisaurus remains, Lepidosaur reptiles like Kaikaifilusaurus minimus, and Testudinata turtles such as Chubutemys copelloi and Prochelidella cerrobarcinae. Design, Behaviour and AI The first way to make Genyodectes a unique dinosaur when compared to in-game and current therapods would be in both its wild and domesticated behaviour. This would make first encounters with Genyodectes unique and possibly memorable. The below concept art was created by myself (MonstersHunters) as a basic sketch on the suggested behaviours. A Genyodectes outmanoeuvring a Parasaurolophus - Illustrated by MonstersHunters The movement of Genyodectes should be different from other predators currently in Ark. Built for flat habitats such as estuaries, flood-meadows and marshes, a Genyodectes will lock onto prey and begin chasing it. However, it will bend and turn (serpentine) in a random ordeal to outmanoeuvre and confuse its prey, allowing it to ensnare or outpace its prey target given the environment (the Center has a large amount of cliffs, waterfalls and hillsides, which can be used as either ideal or avoidable recommendations for hunting depending on the individual Genyodectes). This behaviour I believe would work better than continuing with the simple biting and mauling its prey in a simple hitbox locked-on fashion like a majority of the creatures currently in Ark, while also making Genyodectes unique from other theropods in a single process. A Genyodectes grabbing and crushing a Pachycephalosaurus - Illustrated by MonstersHunters Similar to Kaprosuchus and Sarcosuchus, when Genyodectes grabs a prey item (ranging from a Compsognathus to a Human in size), both its teeth and specialised jaw muscles snap shut and lock the prey item in place. Immediately causing haemorrhaging and internal bleeding. Genyodectes would have fed on small ornithischians, mammals, possibly fish and fast-moving prey sources in its Early Cretaceous environment in the floodplains of South America. Using its robust head and jaw anatomy designed and specialised for biting and stopping prey in their tracks. The proximity based recognition of a Wild Genyodectes - Illustrated by MonstersHunters When wild Genyodectes are hunting or are preparing to ambush a target, its AI will lock onto the smallest, weakest or slowest target in a given range. To be realistic to an extent, Genyodectes like most therapods would probably take advantage of specific (slower, smaller, weaker or injured) prey sources (being opportunistic). In the above image, rather than targeting or locking onto an Iguanodon or a Gallimimus, a smaller prey item that can’t fight back or run away such as a Pegomastax would be a desired prey item. A Genyodectes scaring a pair of Utahraptors off a Stegosaurid Carcass - Illustrated by MonstersHunters The next key behavioural factor present in both wild and domesticated Genyodectes, would be its ability to kick smaller therapods off of caracesses and carrion. Applying to all non-avian theropods in nature, Ceratosaurus and Genyodectes were not full-time scavengers like vultures. Though In a majority of recent pop culture and TV-show depictions of this theropod family, Ceratosaurus itself is portrayed as either a weaker and more “useless” theropod in its paleoenvironment or as scavenger (in reality, pterosaurs would have most likely have filled scavenger-related roles) of the carcasses from larger theropods such as Saurophaganax, Torvosaurus, Lourinhanosaurus or Allosaurus (or Tyrannotitan and abelisaurids in the case of Genyodectes). When given the opportunity, Genyodectes will threaten and force smaller scavengers ranging from compys to ravagers off of non-harvested caresses or injured prey items (applying a temporary debuff somewhat similar to the Yutyrannus Terror/Fear ability). A Genyodectes fishing for a Coelacanth - Illustrated by MonstersHunters The final key behavioural factor is a behavioural ability, applied to Ceratosaurids in general. Proposals in 2004 by Robert Baker and Gary Bir, and challenged in 2019 by Chan-gyn Yun, the body of Ceratosaurus was long, flexible and low to the ground, coupled with tall vertical neural spines and deep chevron bones on the underside of its tail. Ceratosaurus would have had a crocodile-like tail that convergently would have been used towards swimming in times of ecological changes. When desired prey sources such as sauropods or stegosaurids were no longer abundant/absent in a surrounding habitat, Ceratosaurus could switch its niche or diet plan towards hunting aquatic prey items like lungfish (Ceratosaurus teeth are abundant in excavation points where prehistoric lungfish specimens have been recovered in the Morrison Formation) depending on the surrounding changes in available prey sources, or the environment the Ceratosaurus adapted to. While this is present in Ceratosaurus, Genyodectes has been uncovered from the Cerro Barcino Formation in the Chubut Province of Argentina. This formation contains member layers from different geographical positions that provide time estimates from the Early Cretaceous, specifically in this case, the Cerro Castaño that contains evidence of humid flood-plain like conditions that could have seen Genyodectes perform niche partitioning by having a wide-ecological collection of prey items. This means that Genyodectes could have possibly been semi-aquatic. Also in the scenario that future evidence proves these theories wrong, it is a unique speculative concept that could be incorporated into a fictional species of Genyodectes for Ark. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- For the design, Genyodectes should have the above behavioural traits adapted into its final design, but should also appear slightly larger in size (about 2 to 3 feet taller), mainly due its niche diversity in the Center ecosystem that resulted in a larger size, as well as having to compete with other fictional species of predators: https://everythingdinosaurs.weebly.com/genyodectes.html Genyodectes could also features present in other Ceratosaurids like the Italian ceratosaurid Saltriovenator and Ceratosaurus in its design: A Great Artistic Recreation of Saltriovenator by Brennan Stokkermans at https://brennanstokkermans.artstation.com/projects/w82zxL. and A detailed 3d sculpt model of Ceratosaurus by 3D Artist Jonathan Harris at https://www.artstation.com/artwork/nQDPB4 Note that one key detail present in both illustrations or depictions of Ceratosaurid theropods is the inclusion of a layer of skin that covered the teeth, essentially a false “lip”. Another way to distinguish Genyodectes anoteros is through these small details. A large majority of Ark Survival Evolved’s current theropod dinosaurs either lack reptilian-like “lips” (not true lips like those in mammals) such as the Rex, Spinosaurus, Utahraptor, Giganotosaurus and Allosaurus, or are semi-lipped like the Megalosaurus, Carcharodontosaurus and Carnotaurus. To oversimplify, skin coverings would have been present on most theropods, birds (skin coverings are present in some birds like eagles, emus, rheas, secretary birds, crested caracara and puffins which do lack teeth, but have these forms of extra oral tissue) and reptiles (such as monitor lizards, tuatara, agamids, geckos and iguanas - excluding crocodilians) to protect the outer enamel and parts of the tooth from outside elements that could cause wear and tear or destroy the tooth. To constantly replace damaged teeth would be taxing on these dinosaurs, so after much debate in the paleontological community, skin coverings over the teeth have been speculated and specified to have existed in theropods ranging from Spinosaurids to Dromaeosaurids and Abelisaurids (including Ceratosaurids). Genyodectes anoteros males should have a unique or vibrant crest display as a form of sexual display. The tails in both males and females should also be muscular and large in relation to their adaptive radiation from a terrestrial to semi-aquatic swift/agility based lifestyle. Its legs and body plan should be designed or intended towards outrunning or outmanoeuvring prey, similar to its behavioural factors. This means a lower to the ground body posture with a long and flexible torso region coupled with proportionally yet muscular sized legs to carry its estimated 905 kilograms (1995.18 pounds) in weight (in 2016, Genyodectes serus was estimated to be 6.25 metres in length and 790 kilograms (1741.65 pounds/lb) in weight. Ceratosaurus’s weight was calculated at 980 kgs or 2160.53 lbs in maximum weight. The fictional species should be somewhere in between both estimates). A final detail would be that Genyodectes should have a randomly scattered osteoderm covered skin pattern/texture, similar to Abelisaurids like Carnotaurus. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Abilities and Advantages - Genyodectes anoteros is designed and built for agility and brute force. Unlike other theropods, Genyodectes has a 50% stamina reduction characteristic. - When running and sprinting, Genyodectes receives an ability known as “Serration”. When in combat with larger opponents, the amount of energy built up as momentum collides with the target and can deal an increased percentage of damage depending on the amount of time sprinting or the amount of energy behind the attack (such as running downhill - ranging on a scale from 5 to 10 times more damage output). This ability still applies in shallow, knee-deep water for the Genyo, but can be disabled if in a lake or deeper water body. - With enough energy and correct timing, both tamed and wild Genyodectes anoteros can apply an attack known as “Dissection” when confronting smaller targets. Ranging from a compsognathus or noglin in size to a human, this ability is an alternative to Serration. The Genyo can grip a target based on its jaw and skeletal adaptations that are intended towards snapping its jaws shut and tearing away flesh. This means that the longer a small prey item is held in its jaws, the teeth dig deeper into the muscle tissue and cause a bleeding debuff similar to the “gnashed” condition. This will continue until either enough damage is applied on the Genyo, a torpor effect is applied or the prey item dies. - With its behaviours, wild Genyodectes movements are based on calculating or measuring the movement of its prey target, which allows it to quickly out-manoeuvre its prey. When riding a tamed Genyodectes, twisting and turning allows it to maintain a majority of its momentum and can allow it to maintain its stamina in a controlled fashion. If you run into a tree, rock or charge your target by applying "Serration” on a larger target, its momentum will be slowed or be stopped completely. - The Genyodectes has the ability to dismount players off of tames, including Phiomias, Parasaurolophus, Iguanodons, Equus, Dire Wolves, Terror Birds, Megaloceros, Kaprosuchus, Sabertooth, Mantas, Pteranodon, Pelagornis, Gallimimus and Pachycephalosaurus (Lymantria, Ravagers, Thorny Dragons, Mantis, Andrewsarchus, Shadowmanes and Velonasaurus for creatures outside of the Center Map). - The Genyo can switch its attacks from mauling and biting a target to clawing or slashing instead, both applying different melee-based damage amounts. Biting deals more damage to a single target, while slashing can deal around the same total approximation of damage, instead distributed in total (adding up to said total) across multiple targets in a swing cycle. - The Genyo has a weight/carrying reduction of 25% towards specific harvested items such as hide, keratin, fur, oil and chitin. - The Genyodectes prefers to hunt solitary and can receive a negative debuff when hunting alongside other pack members that are male or are outside of its specific mate (mateboosted) and/or its offspring. Ceratosaurids are speculated to have hunted less in packs, but rather in family units between mates and sub-adult offspring. This means that offspring can receive a boost in imprinting with hunting experience alongside their parents and a survivor. - Tamed and raised Genyodectes can be imprinted and taught to ambush targets if outside of a flat or plateau-based area, being able to walk in a crawl-like fashion that can be altered or is accessible via the behaviour panel. This gives off limited sound cues when hunting, primarily for enemy players. - The Genyo can escape net projectiles from a harpoon launcher and will after an encounter, a wild Genyodectes anoteros will try to outmanoeuvre a net. Weaknesses - The most major weakness to Genyodectes is long-ranged weaponry, primarily chain bolas and catapult turrets. While the net gun’s net can be torn apart by the Genyodectes, chain bolas can easily ensnare and stop a Genyodectes in its tracks, if a player recognises the direction it's running in. Another alternative is a chalicotherium, which can easily obstruct and kill a weak Genyo if it is not in flat terrain. - The Genyo can not dismount players off of tames including Triceratops, Stegosaurus, Argentavis, Procoptodon, Thylacoleo, large theropods taller than an Allosaurus and certain Aquatic mounts including Ichthyosaurus, megalodon, Basilosaurus, and Sarcosuchus (creatures on other maps include Griffins, Magmasaurus, Bloodstalkers and Astrocetus). - The last debuff to the Genyo is that at night when in combat with a Megalosaurus, the Genyo receives a 15% health regeneration debuff and a 10% movement speed decrease when in combat with both domesticated/tamed and wild Megalosaurus (making it a perfect counter in certain scenarios). - While the Genyo can swim and has a tail designed towards agility both on land and in the water, the Genyo can drown (has an oxygen metre) after an extended period of time. Taming Method: While a Genyo can be tamed with narcotics, kibble and raw mutton, the easiest method is to use a passive tame. Using Ghillie armour, a player can instead cooperate with a Genyodectes in a handful to a series of ambushes of a selected prey target. After participating in an ambush, a player can feed the Genyodectes its preferred food item (mutton or superior kibble which reduces the number of ambushes that have to be performed). Passive grants higher taming progression when compared to knockout taming. One key detail with Wid Genyodectes that can be critical in the taming process, comes down to trapping the animal. In open environments such as floodplains and the undergrowths of marshland, Genyodectes can easily out manoeuvre and overrun prey sources, though if someone was to trap it with a large bear trap or in a foundation-based cage with gates. The Genyo will have nowhere to run. A player can also use an Equus’s kicks to apply an increased amount of torpor on a Genyo. Spawning Locations: https://ark.wiki.gg/wiki/Resource_Map/The_Center With Genyodectes being specialised for various environments on the Center map. Genyodectes anoteros spawns in both the temperate regions in the Snowy Grasslands (Uncommon) and the Western Cliffs (Rare) on the Western Landmass of the Center, as well as the open woodlands and estuaries of the Southern Jungle (Rare), the Southern Tropical Island (Common), the Northern Tropical Island (Common), and the flat regions of the Bridge (Very Rare) For those interested in Genyodectes outside of this suggestion, I would recommend checking out the Prehistoric Beasts mod for Ark on the Steam Workshop at https://steamcommunity.com/sharedfiles/filedetails/?id=2003934830 created by mod author Crysta. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Originally planned for addition for the Center’s unique geography yet limited amount of diverse or unique fauna as of current. My team and I originally were going to select the Late Cretaceous fish Paravinciguerria, though with limited information. We instead selected another bizarre form of Stomiiformes fish that could experience deep-sea or abyssal gigantism, based on the Viperfish. Now while the Viperfish is a genus of deep-sea fish that exist today in the Holocene, they trace their evolution back to the Late Miocene of around 11 million years ago with extinct species. Common Name: Viperfish Species: Chauliodus stompagida Time: Late Miocene to Holocene Diet: Carnivore Temperament: Patient Tameable: Yes Rideable: Yes Breedable: Yes Torpidity Immune: No^2 2 = Only during the passive taming process can a viperfish be knocked out with narcotics (by hand in passive taming or with a projectile) Taming Method: Passive Preferred Kibble: Superior Preferred Food: Angler Egg Equipment: “Viperfish Saddle” (Level 60- Crafted at either a Smithy or on an Argentavis saddle) Rider Weaponry: Yes Humans Can Carry: No https://www.mbari.org/animal/pacific-viperfish/ Wild “With abyssal gigantism and experiencing mass niche dominance in the undersea depths, the Viperfish, Chauliodus stompagida feeds on small fish, arthropods and mollusks within the dark benthic zones of the ocean. Their bioluminescence is more elaborate than that of the Anglerfish Melanocetus angerlpescum, having a special spine on the frontal dorsal fin that acts as a lure, and multiple photophore organs on its sides. Counter-illuminating with surrounding light levels and the continuous dark environment, Chauliodus unhinge their jaws and sit in wait, watching with their large eyes as a small prey source is attracted to the motion of a small light. With shock absorbing vertebrae, the viperfish lunges forward in an instant, consuming the prey whole”. Domesticated “Being more than 12 times larger than their present day counterparts, C. stompagida is usually used by survivors towards traversing the depths without notice by larger predators, using camouflage and large eyes specialised for low light environments. The viperfish is also used for hunting, with large teeth that prevent the fish from closing its mouth completely, being able to swallow prey up to two thirds its own size and with its hypnotic lure. The viperfish is a perfect example of a deep-sea predator”. - Helena Walker Anatomy While the genus Chauliodus is present today, species such as Chauliodus eximus and Chauliodus testa have been uncovered from digsites, presenting that this genus originates with a presence in the fossil record from the Late Miocene. The first species, Chauliodus eximus was originally described in 1925 by American Ichthyologist David Starr Jordan from stratified material in Southern California, United States. The second species, Chauliodus testa was discovered and described in 2014 by Russian Ichthyologist Mikhail V. Nazarkin from the Kurasi Formation of western Sakhalin Island belonging to Russia. https://pterosaurheresies.wordpress.com/2019/10/17/chauliodus-the-viperfish-enters-the-lrt/ When describing the anatomy of these fish, the genus Chauliodus are bizarre in nature and appearance. Most viperfish feed primarily on lanternfish (myctophids), bristlemouths, krill and deep-sea copepods, but are also known to search surface waters for food during pelagic migrations. These migrations are influenced by temperature, with observations describing that the upper limit of distribution is restricted by temperatures around 12 to 15°C, this affecting vertical habitat and trophodynamics. In warmer or tropical climates, viperfish can exist full time in waters below 400 metres. This form of migratory behaviours is known as diel vertical migration. Viperfish are known to migrate to depths of 400 metres at night, these fish are able to withstand daily temperature changes of up to 7°C, even being able to withstand ranges of 4 to 14.5°C. These forms of migrations have been observed in the western Mediterranean Basin, the Adriatic Sea, the Aegean Sea, the Levant Sea and North African waters. The eyes of Chauliodus viperfish maintain a constant size and proportion throughout the fish’s lifespan, but inside of the eye. Seven specialised rod cells continue to grow and overlap upon one another in the retina, increasing in number with the size of the fish. Rod cells are the photoreceptor cells within the eye that are hypersensitive to light levels, allowing these fish to see more accurately in low light frequencies within the mesopelagic (where only 1% of the sun’s original light reaches below 200 metres) and bathypelagic zones. https://www.deepseawaters.com/sloanes-viperfish.html Unlike other fish, viperfish are not covered in scales, they are instead covered in a thick, slimy, transparent coating of an unknown substance that is layered upon hexagonal pigment patterns. This material on their skin most likely helps with their bioluminescence. Viperfish have photophore organs on their ventral, lateral and ventrolateral sides, designed to both emit light as a form of communication, towards luring prey and even as a form of camouflage in the surrounding depths in order to avoid predators. These bioluminescent organs emit light through adrenergic nervous control with synaptic transmission between the nervous system, but also connect to the fish’s endocrine system. Studies have found that the release of adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine) trigger bioluminescence in Sloane’s viperfish. These fish have even evolved these bioluminescent organs to match the surrounding depths and distributions of light, in a form of camouflage known as counter-illumination. When describing breeding and reproduction, viperfish are gonochoristic (have separate male and female individuals in each species of this genus, when compared to other fish that are hermaphrodites) and breed through batch spawning and asynchronous oocyte development in females. Pacific viperfish (Chauliodus macouni) lack swim bladders and instead rely on the use of acidic glycosaminoglycans in their gelatinous tissue which is used as a form of buoyancy. Viperfish are prey to certain species of deep-sea organisms, primarily certain genera of dolphins and sharks. The paleoenvironment of the Middle to Upper Miocene Kurasi Formation that included Chauliodus testa contained a multitude of different fish species, including prehistoric Cetorhinidae basking sharks, Alepisauridae Lancetfish, Oneirodes Dreamer anglerfish, bristlemouths including Cyclothone mukhachevae from surrounding formations alongside Scomber Mackerel fish, Bathylagidae, Microstomatidae and Leuroglossus or Deep-sea smelts, Argentiniformes, ridgeheads such as Scopelogadus and Caridean shrimp. Design, Behaviour and AI https://sfbaymsi.tumblr.com/post/96105059407/the-viperfish-chauliodus-sloani-viperfish-can Chauliodus stompagida would be a species designed for a more opportunistic hunting method. Through the use of a bioluminescent lure at the tip of a spine on the first dorsal fin, the muscles in the spine swing the lure from side to side, simulating a moving prey item from the interpretation/perspectives of marine invertebrates and other deep-sea vertebrates. Dangling this lure usually in front of the fish’s mouth. Using their long, elongated sharp fangs (they are so long that the fish could puncture its own brain with misalignment) coupled with a protruding hinged lower jaw and skull adapted to a wide opening in the mouth, these fish grab and swallow their prey whole, snapping at quick instances that prevent prey from escaping. Their jaws are able to be unhinged and can open their mouths up to 90° and can catch prey that are up to 63% of their own body size. The stomachs of these fish are quite elastic and are designed to contain and digest prey that have been swallowed whole. These details will apply to the fictional species in Ark and its behavioural instincts towards hunting. Chauliodus similar to other deep-sea fish can experience deep-sea gigantism, which can alter their overall size or mass in certain depths in the ocean. In shallow environments, present day viperfish individuals are found to have lesser or smaller masses than those at depths of over 500 metres. This can play into gameplay with smaller individuals being found around the water’s surface, gradually getting larger the deeper the water progresses. With deep-sea specialisation and the principles of deep-sea gigantism, Chauliodus stompagida will be much larger than its present day counterparts, being over 6 feet in length. Their body plan and shape should resemble the below image: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sloane%27s_viperfish#/media/File:Chauliodus_sloani_Gervais.jpg ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Abilities and Advantages - With their unique jaws, viperfish can unhinge their jaws from alignment (with their teeth remaining in place) and can either swallow prey that are around 63% of the fish’s original size, or can use their long canine-like teeth to gouge and pierce the flesh of enemies or predators. This ability which can be activated on its behavioural menu or on command via riding, is known as “Unhinged”. The viperfish can not close its mouth, otherwise it could impale its own eyes or its brain due to the size and length of its teeth. - Viperfish such as Chauliodus macouni or the Pacific Viperfish have evolved specialised vertebrae located at the back of their heads, designed to act as shock absorbers (similar to air bags). This is due to high speed collisions and force in bites with prey items that have resulted in the viperfish adapting to high impacts. - The Chauliodus grants better nocturnal vision to riders and survivors within 3 metres of the fish, due to its rod cell adaptability and specialisation in deep sea habitats. - Animals that are too large to be swallowed whole and are just over the 63% body ratio can gain a debuff known as “Swallowed”. This can trap certain creatures and can cause both damage to the viperfish and the prey organism, until the viperfish lets go of the prey item. - The lure on the top of the Chauliodus can hypnotise aquatic animals as large as a kaprosuchus (includes cnidaria, electrophorus, coelacanths, parakeet fish swarms, anglerfish, sabertooth salmon, megapiranhas, eurypterids, humans and trilobites) but can stun animals such as mantas, ichthyosaurus, carbonemys and sarcosuchus for a limited amount of time (depends on the creature). The hypnosis ability lasts for 30 seconds to a minute depending on the size of the viperfish. - The most important detail and characteristic of the Chauliodus is its size. The deeper the ocean, the larger the viperfish. This means that larger viperfish have stronger bites, sizes, and can swallow large prey, when compared to smaller shallower viperfish that might instead be faster in manoeuvrability rather than in defence, size, health and melee damage. Weaknesses - Viperfish are gill-breathing fish and can not breathe on land as they lack lungs. - Chauliodus stompagida are obligated towards deeper deaths and can experience pressure and temperature problems if they swim past a limit of 250 metres, with larger individuals being limited to around 300 to 350 metres . - Chauliodus are weak against megalodons and basilosaurus. Taming Method: In order to tame a viperfish, a player needs to be hypnotised under its lure and similar to a bloodstalker. The player will be grabbed and held in its jaws, taking small amounts of damage in the process, but being able to consume food items, medical brews and Sanguine Elixir which boosts both taming efficiency and taming progression by 5 to 10%. During this time, the player will give the viperfish either Superior Kibble or Anglerfish Eggs, however. Unlike other passive tames, the Viperfish will hold onto the player as it swims through the water, having to be fed every 2 to 3 minutes depending on its level. During this taming process, the viperfish is no longer torpid immune and can be tranquilised if necessary. Spawning Location: Chauliodus stompagida are primarily found in deep depths of around 300 to 1000 metres below the surface and will hide in darker environments, using their camouflage and bioluminescence to aid in counter-illumination. To give perspective, this would include the Deep Ocean and Oceanic Cliffs on the Island, the Eastern Trench on the Center, the Dark Depths of Genesis Part 1’s Ocean Biome and the Midgard Fjordur oceans. Warmer climates would see Chauliodus spawn closer around 300 to 400 metres when compared to temperate and colder biomes, which would see the opposite effect. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Any suggestions and comments please reply below. These all belong to and originate from my team's suggestions, so all credit and reference goes to them for the idea(s). Thanks. - MonstersHunters All Sources of Reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Onychonycteridae https://dnr.maryland.gov/wildlife/Pages/plants_wildlife/bats/batelocu https://www.nps.gov/subjects/bats/echolocation.htm https://ucmp.berkeley.edu/tertiary/eoc/greenriver.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_River_Formation https://www.washingtonpost.com/science/why-do-bats-have-so-many-viruses/2020/07/10/0327f584-b65e-11ea-a8da-693df3d7674a_story.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rabies_virus https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Necromantis https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quercy_Phosphorites_Formation https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odobenocetops https://www.wired.com/2014/03/narwhal-tusks-enormous-sensory-organs/ https://www.worldwildlife.org/stories/unicorn-of-the-sea-narwhal-facts https://eloka-arctic.org/communities/narwhal/about_narwhals.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melon_(cetacean) https://dinopedia.fandom.com/wiki/Odobenocetops https://fossil.fandom.com/wiki/Odobenocetops https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Premaxilla https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pisco_Formation https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synthetoceras https://www.prehistoric-wildlife.com/species/s/synthetoceras.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alachua_Formation https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syndyoceras https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greater_mouse-deer https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protoceratidae https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tragulina https://dinopedia.fandom.com/wiki/Synthetoceras https://www.amnh.org/explore/news-blogs/on-exhibit-posts/fast-facts-peacock-mantis-shrimp http://www.fossilmuseum.net/ https://www.jstor.org/stable/1304046 https://www.mindat.org/paleo_loc.php?id=11894 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madera_Group https://dbpedia.org/page/Aenigmacaris https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bear_Gulch_Limestone https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aeschronectida https://arstechnica.com/science/2020/03/when-the-medium-matters-the-mighty-mantis-shrimp-pulls-its-punch-in-air/ https://pigeonkey.net/creature-feature-mantis-shrimp/ https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rsif.2019.0203 https://bio4climate.org/featured-creature/featured-creature-mantis-shrimp/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balfour_Formation https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diictodon https://www.prehistoric-wildlife.com/species/d/diictodon.html https://fossil.fandom.com/wiki/Diictodon https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meerkat https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gopher https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cerro_Barcino_Formation https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genyodectes https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceratosaurus https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/what-is-genyodectes-144686459/ https://dinopedia.fandom.com/wiki/Genyodectes https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235907356_Provenance_and_anatomy_of_Genyodectes_serus_a_large-toothed_Ceratosaur_Dinosauria_Theropoda_from_Patagonia https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1342937X19302886 https://www.nhm.ac.uk/discover/news/2023/march/dinosaurs-may-have-had-scaly-lips-protect-teeth-from-damage.html https://www.science.org/content/article/t-rex-lips-new-study-suggests https://www.deseret.com/2023/4/4/23664529/t-rex-dinos-had-lips-not-exposed-teeth https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chauliodus_eximus https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rod_cell https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viperfish https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacific_viperfish https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sloane%27s_viperfish https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lancetfish https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulbous_dreamer https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microstomatidae https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deep-sea_smelt https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photophore https://www.mindat.org/taxon-P352793.html https://www.mindat.org/taxon-9528636.html https://link.springer.com/article/10.1134/S0031030120020112 https://www.schweizerbart.de/papers/njgpa/detail/303/100854/A_new_caridean_shrimp_Crustacea_Decapoda_from_the_middle_late_Miocene_of_Sakhalin_Island_Russia https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Gill-rakers-of-basking-sharks-from-Sakhalin-Tertiary-Specimens-ZIN-306p-1-a-and-ZIN_fig1_273777115 https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Miocene-deep-sea-smelts-from-Far-East-Russia-unidentifiable-to-genus-a-Bathylagini_fig3_325533833 https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/adrenergic-system https://www.eopugetsound.org/content/pacific-viperfish