Jump to content
  • 0

Pelorovis (an ancient cow such as a sheep or buffalo)



Pelorovis ("prodigious/monstrous sheep") is an extinct genus of African wild cattle which existed during the Pleistocene epoch.

The best known species is Pelorovis oldowayensis from Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania, from the Early Pleistocene. The species "Pelorovis" antiquus from the Late Pleistocene-Holocene has since been moved into Syncerus, the same genus as living African buffalo.

The genus was first described by Hans Reck in 1928 to house his new species P. oldowayensis, which he described from bones originally found by him in Olduvai Gorge in northern German East Africa (Tanzania) in 1913, the first ever time this famous locality was explored by a palaeontologist. The holotype is a fossil skull and assorted bones kept in Berlin.

The species P. kaisensis was named in 1994 from Kaiso, Uganda. Hadjouis and Sahnouni considered it to be closer to Syncerus in 2005.

A 2007 study by Bienvenido Martínez-Navarro and colleagues of the morphology of the fossil remains came to the conclusion that Pelorovis is probably not monophyletic. These authors reclassify the early forms of the genus, P. turkanensis and P. oldowayensis, in the genus Bos. In contrast, they find that the late Pleistocene form Pelorovis antiquus seems to be a close relative of the modern African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). This approach essentially subsumes the genus as a synonym of Bos, because the type species is P. oldowayensis.

A number of the authors of this study reiterated their classification of the taxa Pelorovis turkanensis and P. oldowayensis in the genus Bos in another paper published 2014.

Alexandre Hassanin follows the interpretations of Martínez-Navarro et al., pointing to previous genetics work which show that the bovid lineages which produced the modern species within the genera Bos, Bubalus and Syncerus split from each other some eight to nine million years ago, indicating that either the fossil ancestors of these species have not yet been discovered, or that they already have been found, but are taxonomically misidentified. He further points out that Martínez-Navarro et al. are only looking for the ancestor of Bos primigenius in their studies of African fossil bovids, and that the Asian species of Bos may have been derived from other fossil species. Lastly, Hassanin notes that if Pelorovis is reduced into synonymy due to these studies, this also implies the other Pleistocene fossil genera Leptobos and Epileptobos are synonymous with Bos.

A 2018 study by Tong et al. of the Chinese fossil representation of Bos primigenius uses morphology to dispute these conclusions regarding these taxa belonging to the genus Bos, as well as if they are the ancestral line from which Bos evolved, instead hewing to the traditional interpretation that the Indian Early Pleistocene fossil species Bos acutifrons is the primordial ancestor of Bos.

Syncerus antiquus was described by Georges Louis Duvernoy in 1851 from a skull discovered along the Bou Sellam River near the city of Sétif, Algeria. It was found at one meter in depth, when excavating the foundations of a new mill, and subsequently sent to Paris.

Duvernoy believed this species to be closely related to the Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and classified it as Bubalus antiquus. Several other fossils of S. antiquus were described under the names Bubalus bainii and Bubalus nilssoni.

In 1949, Dorothy Bate recognized that these buffaloes were conspecific and not related to Bubalus. She placed these fossils in a new genus, Homoioceras.

However, the type species of Homoiceros was found to be synonymous with the Cape buffalo, invalidating the genus. It was subsequently moved to Pelorovis in 1978.

However, a link with the living Cape buffalo has been noted based on morphological and systematic grounds, and since 1994 it has been suggested that P. antiquus be moved into Syncerus.

This proposal has since gained widespread acceptance.

The etymology of the generic epithet "pelorovis", chosen by Reck in 1928, is compounded from the Greek πέλωρος (péloros) in the sense of "monstrous" or "huge and terrible" and Latin ovis, meaning "sheep".

Pelorovis resembled an African buffalo, although it was larger and possessed longer, curved horns. Pelorovis probably weighed about 1,200 kilograms (2,600 lb), with the largest males attaining 2,000 kilograms (4,400 lb). This ranks it as one of the largest bovines, and indeed one of the largest ruminants ever to have lived, rivalling the extinct American long-horned bison (Bison latifrons), and the extinct Asiatic giraffid Sivatherium giganteum, as well as the extant African giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) in weight. The bony cores of the horns were each about 1 metre (3.3 ft) long; when covered with keratin (which does not survive fossilisation) they could have been up to twice this length.

The horns pointed away from the head, each forming a half circle in the species Pelorovis oldowayensis and P. turkanensis.

P. oldowayensis was broadly the same size as modern African buffalo, but its legs were longer, and the elongated head of this species was reminiscent to those of the modern Alcelaphinae.

P. oldowayensis occurred in sub-Saharan Africa and disappeared 800,000 years ago.

The best fossils of P. oldowayensis are known from the Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania.


In the game, it appears as a large cow that moves in a herd of three, but these cows have different personalities depending on their gender. Males with long horns are neutral, and females without horns are friendly. Females flee quickly when attacked.

However, when attacked, the male will fight back, and if he attacks the female, the male will also become hostile to the enemy who attacked the female.

Also, one male of the group is always high level in the group and becomes the leader of the group, and the remaining two are set as females with a lower level than the male.

In other words, attacking the male himself will be hostile, and attacking a female in the group will cause the male to become enraged and hostile.

Also, since females have a friendly personality, they are not suitable for fighting, but males are set to be suitable for fighting in order to protect the herd. Appears and emits a squealing sound to intimidate.

It will give the player a terrifying debuff that will cause them to flee when they hear it, or medium carnivores such as Raptor, Sabertooth, Pulmonoscorpius, Terror Bird, and small carnivores such as Dilophosaurus.

In addition, the buff "Carnivorous Killer" increases attack power and speed, and like Woolly Rhino, the more you run, the more attack power and speed you run. It will be possible to defeat Tyrannosaurus with one blow.

In addition, enemies hit while in the "Carnivorous Killer" state will always be bleed and stunned.

This makes the Pelorovis the strongest herbivore, capable of bravely fighting carnivores to protect its herd.

In rare cases, when the male is killed, it may drop the ``Pelorovis Horn'', which is a substitute for the ``Woolly Rhino Horn'', and both males and females may drop marbled meat.

Taming method

In the wild, this cow can actually go into breeding mode under certain conditions and have offspring.

The condition is that the male and female will be given a Sweet Vegetable Cake each by hand, after which they will automatically go into breeding mode.

However, it is necessary that there are no carnivorous animals around, that the "carnivorous killer" is not activated, and that it is not hostile to the player.

Then feed them Sweet Vegetable Cake, then go into breeding mode, and then have babies.

And by raising the born child by the player, you can tame it when you become an adult.

Must be with parent Pelorovis, and like Breeding Mode, no carnivores around, parent not activating Carnivorous Killer, and parent not hostile to the player. This is also a necessary condition for growing from a child to an adult.

In the first place, children are most likely to be targeted by carnivores, so players will work together with their parents to protect their children.

By fighting together, parents began to trust the player, and when they grew up from children to adults, they regarded Pelorovis, who had grown from children to adults, as "independent from the herd" or "going with the player". Say goodbye to your cubs and then move to a different location as a group.

In order to make a new baby from the same pack, it is necessary to wait for the entire pack to cool down after giving birth, which will be about 3 hours later.

After taming

Since males and females have different abilities, we will look at males and females separately.

Please think of males as mainly fighting cows.

Like wild carnivores, you can activate "Carnivorous Killer", and in that state you can run and charge like Woolly Rhino, and when attacked, you will have bleeding and stun effects. can give.

It can also emit a threatening cry, similar to the wild, giving enemies a fear debuff.

As such, it is effective in fending off pesky hostile creatures such as the Raptor.

And as an ability that can be used only after taming, you can put small creatures such as Dimorphodon on the long horns.

In some cases, a glowing creature, such as a Bulbdog, can be placed on a horn to act as a flashlight.

By the way, you can ride without a saddle.

However, although saddles do exist, they cannot be used on males because the saddles themselves are made for females.

Think of females as friendly cows that aren't as combative as the wild ones.

Females are unable to attack, unable to fight back, and flee like Moschops.

However, unlike males, this cow supports the player's life.

First of all, it has its own saddle.

Males can ride without a saddle, but females cannot equip a saddle.

The saddle feels exactly like an oxcart, and it feels like it's being pulled by Pelorovis.

In addition, it is good at gathering, and can collect berries, fibers, wood, straw, etc. efficiently, and its weight is set higher than that of males, especially wood and straw can be cut by 95%. increase.

The best part is that you can get "Pelorovis Milk" from containers such as bottles, which can be used in new dishes, or by drinking it directly, you can get the effect of preventing food and water levels from dropping.

In addition, the oxcart-like saddle held by the female has its own saddle inventory, where items such as metal can be placed, and their weight will affect the saddle, not the female, making it too heavy. It will be a specification that can not pull the oxcart.

Take advantage of the different abilities of these males and females to make life easier in the ARK and use them as reliable bodyguards or combat partners who can ward off pesky hostile creatures such as the Raptor. I can.

*In addition, although there are some similarities to the contents of the proposal (such as making cheese) with "Giant Bison", it will be a setting that differentiates it from Giant Bison.

Link to comment
Share on other sites

0 replies to this server topic

Recommended Posts

There have been no replies to this suggestion yet


This topic is now archived and is closed to further replies.

  • Create New...